Hardcover: 544 pages Publisher: WILEY-Scrivener,USA
Language: English ISBN: 978-1-119-24249-9
Ashutosh Tiwari and Mikael Syväjärvi
From the Editor–
The two-dimensional (2D) materials exist masses of strongly bonded layers with very weak interlayer attraction, which permit exfoliation into separate, atomically-thick layers. Such super-thin surface percolates free electronic movements in the 2D planes, regulates motion in the third plane with a nanometer thickness. The graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides (TMD)s, diatomic hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), and up-coming monoatomic buckled crystals collectively termed Xenes, which include silicane, germanene and phosphorene are covered in this book. The integrated unique properties of these different 2D materials therefore provides numerous possibilities to shape the future advanced technology.
One of the possibilities to create 2D materials is by separating layered structures which are held together by weak van der Waal forces. Chapter 1 describes the various approaches to fabricate and characterize gallium selenide, as well as demonstration of device characteristics. The challenges in high growth rates to obtain an atomically thin layer instead of multilayer is balanced by the possibility to control the shape of the gallium selenide or even to explore the stacking of 2D materials by growth on graphene. The tunable bandgap and change with number of layers create a challenge in the characterization and the non-linearity in the optical properties. At the end, works in the field effect transistor and photo detector using gallium selenide are given an overview. In chapter 2 the stronger interlayer interaction in boron nitride and the difficulties in fabrication compared with graphene is described, and a range of growth approaches are also drawn-out. The difficulty in growth arises due to the partial ionic B-N bonds caused by the difference in electronegativity between nitrogen and boron. Ultimately this creates chemical bonds between the layers and has a strong impact on the control of the number of layers in boron nitride nanosheets.
The influence of the substrate on graphene and molybdenum disulfide is presented in chapter 3. Defects and dangling bonds appear due to growth conditions and surface preparation. Mostly these are undesired, but in some cases they may be used for internal engineering of the 2D material with the substrate. The uncertainty in the conductivity for example as either n or p-type character, possibly caused by vacancies or interface properties, is an unclear issue in molybdenum disulfide. In particular, the interface has a strong impact since the 2D materials are only atomically thick. In perspective, the functionalization of the substrate with the 2D materials opens up ways to design devices once the properties are understood. The insights to the properties of 2D materials can be guided by modelling as presented in chapter 4 in which the Hubbard model is introduced. The results from calculation of conductivity in one dimension is used to explore the conductivity in two dimensions. The chapter overviews previous work and in some parts extends the results of the calculations.
In chapter 5 the nanocomposites by polymers as matrix for graphene derivatives is reviewed. The fabrication methods of the composites are presented. Their effect on electrical and thermal conductivity, as well as barrier properties, is shown to depend on characteristics like flake size, aspect ratio, loading, dispersion state, and alignment of nanoplatelets within the polymer matrix. As potential field for further synergetic effects for polymers, the combination of carbon nanofillers with one or two dimensions is raised. A multifunctional platform in the nanoscale is given in chapter 6 using polymers and graphene oxide. The nucleation and growth mechanisms of metallic nanoparticles depends on the degree of oxygen functionalization at the surface of graphene oxide. In addition, the graphene oxide can be given additional functionality by surface modification using a variety of polymers. The number of oxygen groups can mediate the type of binding interaction between the surfaces of graphene and graphene oxide and biomolecules, for example to be used in tissue engineering. The graphene oxide in cleaning of water or mechanical reinforcement in structural applications is also discussed.
Chapter 7 highlights composites by graphene and zinc oxide as photocatalyst which is combined by the manufacturing capability of zinc oxide and oxygen functionality in graphene oxide. This slows down the charge carrier recombination and improves the photo-oxidation since the charge transfer is more effective via the graphene. The reduced oxygen activity may also have an enhanced positive effect on the photo-stability given by the interaction between the graphene and zinc oxide. In addition, some ternary hybrid structures are discussed. Polymer grafting is presented in chapter 8 as means of reducing agglomeration of graphene oxide which may occur during use. Both covalent and non-covalent approaches are described. The range of polymers for grafting is increased by using initiators on the surface of graphene for the subsequent polymer generation, or by pre-formed polymers which are attached to the oxygen groups on the surface of graphene oxide. The nanocomposites may also be fabricated using electrostatic interaction between modified graphene and a polymer, or hydrogen bonding on the surface of graphene oxide.
In chapter 9 hybrid structures of graphene and semiconductors is reviewed for use as photocatalyst. The effect of graphene is on an increased mobility of electrons on the surface as well enhancing visible light absorption range of the semiconductor. These properties are reviewed in respect to water splitting and carbon dioxide conversion to liquid fuel. The bandgap of graphene oxide provides a way of making p-n junctions for separation of carriers as well as increase the range of absorption of the solar spectrum. Further on, sensor design from graphene is described in chapter 10. Three graphene types are considered: pristine, nanocomposite or functionalized forms regarding fabrication, properties and applications.
A review of graphene composites for biomedical applications is given in chapter 11. The optics and non-optics based imaging are introduced and the drug delivery and tissue engineering are described. Finally, the nanocomposites for bioceramics for orthopaedic applications are presented in chapter 12. The use in hard tissue rehabilitation materials creates a need of having a bone graft material with good mechanical and biological response. Hydroxyapatite provides a suitable surface for bone growth and integration but it has a poor fracture toughness and wear resistance. The chapter presents graphene as a secondary material in hydroxyapatite to improve the physical and biological properties.
Thus, this book brings together innovative methodologies and strategies adopted in the research and developments of Advanced 2D Materials. Well-known worldwide researchers deliberate subjects on (1) synthesis, characterizations, modeling and properties, (2) state-of-the-art design and (3) innovative uses of 2D materials. The book is written for readers from diverse backgrounds across chemistry, physics, materials science and engineering, nanoscience and nanotechnology, biotechnology, and biomedical engineering. It offers a comprehensive over view of cutting-edge research on 2D materials and technologies. We acknowledge contributors and Mr. Martin Scrivener for his hard work to produce this high-quality book.
Description of Book-
Part 1: Synthesis, characterizations, modelling and properties
Two-dimensional layered gallium selenide: Preparation, properties and applications
Jianhua Hao, Hong Kong
Recent progress on the synthesis of 2D boron nitride nanosheets
Aimin Yu, Australia
The effects of substrates on 2-D crystals
Emanuela Margapoti, Germany
Hubbard model in material science: electrical conductivity and reflectivity of models of some 2D materials
Vladan Celebonovic, Republic of Serbia
Part 2: State-of-the-art design of functional 2D composites
Graphene derivatives in semicrystalline polymer composites
Sandra Paszkiewicz, Poland
Graphene oxide: a unique nano-platform to build advanced multifunctional composites
Paula A. A. P. Marques, Portugal
Synthesis of ZnO-graphene hybrids for photocatalytic degradation of organic contaminants
Alina Pruna, Romania
Covalent and non-covalent modification of graphene oxide through polymer grafting
Abbas Dadkhah Tehrani, Iran
Part 3: High-tech applications of 2D materials
Graphene-semiconductor hybrid photocatalysts and their application in solar fuel production
Rabah Boukherroub, France
Graphene in Sensors Design
Cecilia Cristea, Romania
Bio-applications of graphene composites: From bench to clinic
Lobat Tayebi, USA
Hydroxyapatite-graphene as advanced bioceramic composites for orthopaedic applications
Wan Jeffrey Basirun, Malaysia