Categories Material ScienceNanomaterialsNanotechnology

Advanced Ceramic Materials (Advanced Materials Book Series)

Advanced Ceramic Materials

Ashutosh Tiwari,Rosario Gerhardt, Magdalena Szutkowska

Hardcover: 448 pages  Publisher: WILEY Scrivener USA

Language: English         ISBN: 978-1-119-24244-4


From the Editors-

Ceramic materials are inorganic and non-metallic porcelains, tiles, enamels, cements, glasses and refractory bricks. Today, “ceramics” has gained a wider meaning as a new generation of materials influence on our lives; electronics, computers, communications, aerospace and other industries rely on a number of their uses. In general, advanced ceramic materials include electro ceramics, optoelectronic-ceramics, superconductive ceramics and the more recent development of piezoelectric and dielectric ceramics. They can be considered for their features including mechanical properties, decorative textures, environmental uses, energy applications, as well as their usage in bio ceramics, composites, functionally graded materials, intelligent ceramics and so on. The present book could have trans-disciplinary readership that spans students, engineers, scholars, scientists, physicists, chemists, life scientists and beyond. The volume brings together innovative methodologies and strategies adopted in the research and development of Advanced Ceramic Materials.

This book describes a wide range of processing methods that have been used to generate ceramic materials for a variety of functional, structural and biomedical applications. The book starts with an excellent review of solution based methods that can be used to deposit epitaxial films of oxide nanomaterials for microelectronics applications and is followed by a detailed description of tantalum oxides and related phases and their potential application in solar cells and other applications. The next chapter discusses the basics of microwave processing, a brief summary of the history of microwave processing in various materials and then describes recent work on hybrid microwave sintering of metal matrix composites containing absorbing ceramic materials.

The next group of papers focuses on structural applications and starts with a description of continuous fiber ceramic matrix composites, where typical matrix and filler materials are discussed together with the interfacial layers needed to induce crack deflection and improved fracture toughness.   The next two papers deal with the addition of carbon nanotubes (single wall and multiwall) into bulk alumina and zirconia and how the characteristics of the nanotubes as well as the processing methods used can affect the resultant properties.  This section is followed by the detection of crack healing in MAX containing ceramics and their enhanced properties as a result of the incorporation of these unique materials.

Additional chapters investigate the effect of the additives on manufacturability and biocompatibility. In the first paper in this section, waste materials from a variety of industries are incorporated into ceramic brick for sustainable manufacturing.  The authors propose the use of an artificial neural network optimization program for identifying the conditions that work best for each additive. The second chapter focuses on the importance of different additives to improve the bioactivity of calcium orthophosphates used in medical implants while the third paper investigates the effect of silver additions to hydroxyapatite for improved antifungal and antibacterial response using a variety of surface controlled schemes.

The book is written for readers from diverse backgrounds across chemistry, physics, materials science and engineering, medical science, pharmacy, environmental technology, biotechnology, and biomedical engineering. It offers a comprehensive view of cutting-edge research on ceramic materials and technologies.

Description of Book-

Part 1: Design, processing and properties

Chapter 1

Development of epitaxial oxide ceramics nanomaterials based on chemical strategies 

Adrian Carretero-Genevrier, France


The technological impact of combining substrate technologies with the properties of functional advanced oxide ceramics is colossal given its relevant role in the development of novel and more efficient devices. However the precise control of interfaces and crystallization mechanisms of dissimilar materials at the nanoscale needs to be further developed.  As an example, the integration of hybrid structures of high quality epitaxial oxide films and nanostructures on silicon as remains extremely challenging because these materials present major structural and thermal differences.

This book chapter describes the main promising strategies that are being used to accommodate advanced oxide nanostructured ceramics on different technological substrates via chemical solution deposition approaches.  We will focus on novel examples separated in two main sections: (i) epitaxial ceramic nanomaterials entirely performed by soft chemistry, such as nanostructured piezoelectric quartz thin films on silicon or 1D complex oxide nanostructures epitaxially grown on silicon, and (ii) ceramic materials prepared by combining soft chemistry and physical techniques, such as epitaxial perovskite oxide thin films on silicon using the combination of soft chemistry and Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE).

Consequently, this chapter will cover cutting-edge strategies based on the potential of combining epitaxial growth and chemical solution deposition to develop oxide ceramics nanomaterials with novel structures and improved physical properties.

Chapter 2

Biphasic, triphasic and multiphasic calcium orthophosphates

Sergey V. Dorozhkin, Russia


Due to the chemical similarity to the inorganic constituents of calcified tissues of mammals, biologically relevant calcium orthophosphates (CaPO4) have been applied as artificial bioceramics suitable for reconstruction of various types of bone defects. Since none of the known individual types of CaPO4 appears to be able to mimic both the composition and the properties of natural bones, various attempts have been sought to overcome this problem and a multiphasic (polyphasic) concept is one of the reasonable solutions. In general, this approach is determined by advantageous formulations consisting of homogeneous blends of two (biphasic), three (triphasic) or more (multiphasic) individual CaPO4 phases possessing diverse solubility and, therefore, bioresorbability, while the optimum ratios among the phases depend on the definite applications. Therefore, all currently known multiphasic CaPO4 formulations are sparingly soluble in water and, thus, after being implanted they are gradually resorbed inside the body, releasing calcium and orthophosphate ions into the biological medium and, hence, seeding a new bone formation. They have already demonstrated a proven biocompatibility, osteoconductivity, safety and predictability in vitro, in vivo, as well as in clinical trials. More recently, in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that some of them might possess osteoinductive properties. Hence, in tissue engineering, multiphasic CaPO4 represent promising bioceramics to construct various scaffolds capable of carrying and/or modulating the behavior of cells. This review summarizes the available information on biphasic, triphasic and multiphasic CaPO4 formulations including their biomedical applications. New compositions have been proposed as well.

Chapter 3

An energy efficient processing route for advanced ceramic composites using microwaves

Satnam Singh, India


The recent development in advanced ceramic materials have revolutionized the technologies in various industries such as aerospace engineering, surface engineering and structural components. These materials have proved their worth in cut throat engineering and technological advancement era. Conventional processing methods for ceramic composites are getting obsolete due to limitations in processing of variety of materials and higher energy consumptions. Sustainability of any processing method depends upon the lower energy requirements, lower processing times, better properties of processed material and eco friendly characteristics. Earlier developments in the microwave material processing were reported in heating of foodstuffs, processing of rubbers, plastics, drying of wood, enhancing chemical reactions which require lower temperatures. These developments paved the path for higher temperature applications including processing of various ceramics, glasses and metallic powders. The sintering process of ceramics with microwave energy proved all the beneficial characteristics and allowed enhanced diffusion rates with higher product density; which allowed commercialization of this process. However, the processing of metallic materials with microwaves is a challenging task due to opaque characteristics of metals; which tends to reflect them. These challenges were recently overcome and microwaves were successfully employed for bulk metallic processing using hybrid heating concepts. Present work focuses on the applications of efficient microwave processing in manufacturing sectors such as development of cermets/composite claddings on bulk steel surfaces, joining of various bulk metals and casting of metal-ceramic composites. These processes exhibits lower defects in the processed material owing to the uniform heating provided by microwaves. In near future, microwave material processing will be developed and employed at large scale for various industrial applications.

Part 2: Composites: Fundamentals and frontiers

Chapter 4

Continuous fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites

Steven L. Suib, USA


Nano-ceramics are traditionally used in smaller scale electronics application, but other more recent uses include larger strength-providing materials like those in aircraft engines and aerospace technology. Ceramics have recently become an ideal candidate for applications that require high temperature, high chemical resistivity, oxidation resistance, and high thermal conductivity, however, these applications are limited by the inherent brittle nature of ceramics. One step in overcoming this issue is through the use of Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs), including Fiber Reinforced CMCs. These systems are made up of three components, each made of nano-ceramic materials. The inner reinforcing fiber, typically fabricated from polymer-derived ceramics, is composed of amorphous to nano-crystalline ceramic, and provides strength and durability for the composite. The fiber is then coated with an interface, typically applied through chemical vapor deposition. This interface allows for strengthening mechanisms in the composite including crack deflection and fiber pullout. The final component of the composite is the matrix, or the bulk material. This nano-ceramic material is also produced using chemical vapor deposition and provides the bulk material and strength of the composite. This review gives an overview of continuous fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites made with chemical vapor deposited nano-ceramics. Despite this non-traditional application of nano-ceramics, these materials exhibit incredibly desirable characteristics for use in high temperature and high strength applications like those in the aircraft and engine industries.

Chapter 5

Yytria and magnesia doped alumina ceramic reinforced with multiwall carbon nanotubes

Yanqiu Zhu, United Kingdom


Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are commonly referred to as the ultimate reinforcement for ceramic materials with the main purpose to enhance both the mechanical and functional properties of the structural ceramics. Several ceramics have shown reasonable improvements in toughness and other mechanical properties after incorporating CNTs however, the exciting properties of the CNTs failed to be fully transferred to the nanocomposites due to hitches in obtaining uniform distribution of the CNTs and high densification and flaw-free microstructures in the final nanocomposites, thus new design philosophies are in demand. This chapter describes new concept of the doping of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) reinforced alumina (Al2O3) nanocomposites with yytria (Y2O3) and magnesia (MgO). These dopants have indeed refined the grain size and contributed to attaining near theoretical densities of the nanocomposites without any adverse effect on the structure and morphology of the MWCNTs. Thus, allowed MWCNTs to utilize their intrinsic traits for converting brittle Al2O3 ceramic into tough and hard material suitable for several structural applications.

Chapter 6

Oxidation induced crack healing in MAX phase containing ceramic composites

GUOPING BEI, Netherlands


Crack healing in MAX phase based ceramics is mainly attributed to the reaction of M and A metal with oxygen penetrating into the crack. The intrinsic healing mechanisms of Al contained MAX phases are due to formation of adhesive Al2O3 phase in the crack gaps while Sn contained MAX phases are ascribed to formation of major TiO2 and SnO2 in the bigger crack gaps and metallic Sn formation in the smaller secondary cracks. The oxides as well as metallic phase filling the crack may restore the integrity of MAX phase ceramic components. The mechanical strength and the electrical conductivity of the MAX phase ceramics can be fully restored after the healing process. The remarkable healing abilities of those MAX phases make them promising repair fillers for those ceramics with poor healing ability. Al2O3 mixed with Ti2Al0.5Sn0.5C MAX phase was selected as a model to demonstrate the healing efficiency. The fracture strength of 20 vol.% repair filler composites containing artificial indent cracks recovered fully to the level of the virgin material upon isothermal annealing in air atmosphere after 48 h at 700°C and 0.5 h at 900°C. The evolution of the crack filling microstructure was explored by XRD and TEM analyses.

Chapter 7

SWCNTs vs MWCNTs as reinforcement agents in zirconia and alumina based nanocomposites: which one to use

Miguel Bocanegra-Bernal, Mexico


The recent advances reported in the field of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as reinforcement agents in zirconia and alumina-based nanocomposites are summarized. Although the full potential of CNTs has yet to be reached, the extraordinary and exceptional mechanical, electrical and thermal properties that CNT display as well as the current state of research makes it a perfect candidate for the design and creation of new strong and tough nanocomposite systems. When the interest is to combine CNTs with zirconia and/or alumina to form composites, it is very important and essential to develop different processing methods leading to obtain homogeneous dispersion of the CNTs into the ceramic matrices. In this context, here we compare the effect on mechanical properties using single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) or multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) as reinforcement agents in zirconia and alumina based ceramic nanocomposites densified under different sintering techniques analyzing the influence of sintering on the dispersion of the CNTs within the ceramic host matrix to clarify whether or not an actual improvement has been achieved in terms of fracture toughness and hardness adopting a composite microstructure instead of monolithic one. In addition, we discuss the levels of reinforcement that have actually been achieved in order to obtain high functional properties for high end applications.

Part 3: Functional and applied ceramics

Chapter 8

Application of organic and inorganic wastes in clay brick production – Chemometric approach

Lato Pezo, Republic of Serbia


The goal of this study was the research on the usage capability of various industrial wastes in clay bricks. Changes in product’s behavior were studied in terms of relative differences to ceramic-technological parameters compared to samples without waste materials addition. The effects of organic and inorganic waste were investigated in terms of changes introduced to products during shaping, drying and firing. The highest sensitivity to drying showed samples with coal dust addition, while the greatest plasticity and shaping moist was detected in samples with 50 wt.% of fly and landfill ashes.

Chapter 9

Functional tantalum based oxides: from structure to the applications

Alexander Tkach, Portugal


Due to stability and lack of toxicity metallic tantalum, its pentavalent oxide (Ta2O5) and tantalate complex oxides become commercially attractive in a number of technologies. Particularly, alkali tantalates with perovskite-like structures, including potassium tantalate, KTaO3, sodium tantalate, NaTaO3, and lithium tantalate, LiTaO3, are encouraging functional materials within the ferroic family of lead-free compounds. Their versatile properties make them potential players in microelectronics, photocatalytic processes or medicine. The scientific and technological importance of the tantalum compounds is reviewed in this chapter. The structure, chemical and physical properties of alkali tantalates are described in details. The difference in their functional properties, which are also strongly dependent on the synthesis conditions, is emphasized. The fabrication of these compounds as ceramics with the desired density, stoichiometry, structure and material stability that is always fundamental to ensure the durability and reliability of the compound with particular function is shown to be still challenging. A look over the possible applications of alkali tantalates for electronic components, photocatalysis and tissue engineering is presented.

Chapter 10

Application of silver tin research on hydroxyapatite

Ewa Skwarek, Poland


One of the biggest challenges in the advanced materials area are biomaterials. On the other hand, growing antibiotic resistance of microorganism’s demands from the science community continuous search for new bioactive substances and target drugs with high biocompatibility and antibacterial properties. Although the mechanism of antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles is not completely clear, the literature reports that electrostatic attraction between the negatively charged bacteria cells and the positively charged silver nanoparticles plays a key role in its antibacterial activity. To obtain new compounds with high biocompatibility and desired properties, silver ions are either deposited on biomaterials or embedded in their structure. One of these materials, examined the best and possessing phenomenal biological, bone-creative properties as well as high biocompatibility is hydroxyapatite Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2.

This chapter will constitute the literature survey about the silver nanoparticles characteristics, structure, synthesis, properties and implementation of hydroxyapatite with embedded silver and the use of modern scientific methods: XRD, TEM, SEM, for determination of structure, morphology and optical properties of the examined materials. The results of the research on the characteristics of the colloid hydroxyapatite/silver/electrolyte solution.  System as well as measurements of zeta potential, surface charge density and adsorption from the solution will be discussed.

Ashutosh Tiwari is Chairman & Managing Director at Institute of Advanced Materials & VBRI Group, Secretary General of the International Association of Advanced Materials and Editor-in-Chief of Advanced Materials Letters. Dr. Tiwari also has several adjuncts and honorary professor titles since 2009. Professor Ashutosh Tiwari has been actively involved in the translational research for building state-of-the-art technological systems to handle key challenges in medical, security, energy supply and environmental issues realized by the integration of artificial intelligence and smart strategies. Currently, Ashutosh works mainly on the technological developments of the range of nanotechnology-enabled new tools, technological breakthroughs, key process, new products designed to transform the energy, IT automation, security, and mass medicine.

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