Hardcover: 480 pages Publisher: WILEY-Scrivener ,USA
Language: English ISBN: 978-1-119-24253-6
Ashutosh Tiwari, Mohammad Rabia Alenezi and Seong Chan Jun
From the Editor–
Composites is in a simplified description the combining unique properties of materials to have synergistic effects. A combination of materials is needed to adapt to certain properties for any application area. There is an everlasting desire to have composite materials can be made to be stronger, lighter or more durable than traditional materials. Carbon materials are known to be attractive in composites due to a combination of chemical and physical properties. In the recent years, development of new composites has been inclined by highly precise green approaches which contains in control of hazardous substances and waste created during production. This book covers ranging from the fundamental principles behind the fabrication of different composite materials and their devices for example applications in energy harvesting, memory devices, electrochemical biosensing and other advanced composite-based biomedical applications. Recently, carbon allotropes such as graphene, graphene oxide and carbon nanotubes, have been used in electrochemical biosensors which provide highly sensitive and selective detection. The book will be of interest to interdisciplinary readers from physics, materials science, nanoscience, biomaterials, engineering and, most importantly, to biomedical materials-related life science communities.
This book provides a compilation of innovative fabrication strategies and utilisation methodologies, which are frequently adopted in the Advanced Composite Materials community with respect to developing appropriate composites to efficiently utilise macro and nanoscale features. The book is written for general readers from interdisciplinary backgrounds across physics, chemistry, materials science and engineering, nanoelectronics, electrochemical sensing, biomaterials science, Nanobiotechnology, and advanced biomedical engineering. It offers a comprehensive overview of state-of-art research on composite materials. Scientists, researchers, students and engineers in materials science/ nanotechnology research, composite systems and nanodevices, sensors, carbon nanomaterials, graphene, nanobiomaterials, advanced biomaterials applications, including industrial sectors intending to utilise composite materials in different technologies via state-of-art techniques. This book will also be useful for interdisciplinary PhD candidates for developing their fundamental understanding about the subject and will be appropriate for master and under graduate level courses on composite materials processing, properties and applications in the physics, chemistry, materials science, nanotechnology, biomaterials and biomedical engineering, etc. We would like to thank all contributors who are greatly appreciated for preparing their chapters with high quality and the production team for dedicated work to endorse the birth of this book.
Cutting-edge composite materials for application in printed electronics
Kamil Janeczek, Poland
Further development of printed electronics requires investigations of new advanced composite materials which can be used to produce different types of devices on flexible or rigid substrates. Among these printed devices organic light emitting diodes, organic photovoltaic cells, RFID tags, sensors and capacitors can be mentioned. To achieve their high performance materials used for their fabrication should exhibit excellent electrical as well as thermal and mechanical properties to be not susceptible to environmental factors, in particular to bending cycles. In this study, recently developed different materials used in printed electronics for fabrication of various types of devices are discussed. These materials contain graphene, graphite nanofibres, carbon nanotubes, silver nanopowder or silver flakes. Properties of layers produced from these materials were discussed i.a. based on the results obtained with using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), profilometers and their durability after thermal and mechanical tests were assessed by measurement of their resistance and analysis of their surface and microstructure.
Study of current-limiting defects in superconductors using low temperature scanning laser microscopy (LTSLM)
Pei Li, United States of America
Advanced superconductor has become an enabling technology for many important aspects of science and engineering, such as particle accelerators, high field magnets and energy-efficient power grid. During the past decades, new superconducting materials with properties desirable for application have been continuously discovered. However, as these new materials are being transformed from lab scale samples towards industrial scale products, the locally-depressed current-carrying capability by defects are often found to be the major factor limiting their performance and usefulness. These defects can be of various origins, with some being extrinsic, such as voids and cracks, and other more intrinsic such as non-superconducting impurity phases and grain boundaries. The capability to localize these current-limiting defects and to identify their structural origin is thus of great value to development of superconducting materials.
Low Temperature Laser Scanning Microscopy (LTSLM) is a powerful technique in the study of current-limiting defects. LTSLM uses a focused probe laser beam to scan a sample to induce localized thermal perturbation of several Kelvin while the voltage change across the sample is recorded as a function of scan position. The spatially resolved responses reflect local property variations in the samples. For a superconductor, LTSLM responses can be used to reconstruct and visualize the distribution of important transport properties, especially the critical current density (Jc) and the transition temperature (Tc). The state-of-the-art LTSLM facility can typically achieve a spatial resolution of ~ 1m in the temperature range from 4.2 K to 300K, which is sufficient to resolve the majority of defects and inhomogeneity in superconductors.
Innovative high-tech ceramics materials
Hüsnügül Yılmaz Atay, Turkey
Materials that are employed in high technology applications are referred to as advanced materials. They work by using high technology thanks to relatively complex and sophisticated policies. Even the development of more sophisticated and enormous progress has been made of special ceramics materials. Though, the production of material environmental impact is taken into account. Advanced ceramic materials have been developed relatively affordable to these issues to round out this perspective.
In general, advanced ceramic materials include electro ceramics, optoelectro-ceramics, superconductive ceramics and the more recent development of piezoelectric and dielectric ceramics. They can be considered for their features including mechanical properties, decorative textures, environmental uses, energy applications, as well as their usage in bio ceramics, composites, functionally graded materials, intelligent ceramics and so on.
It has been provided the up-to-date account of the situation of Advanced Ceramics Materials in this chapter from the basic science to the latest innovations. Starting with the raw materials, forming, drying, sintering etc., a facile way to understand the new techniques in advanced ceramics materials has been provided to the reader such as thin films, colloidal processing, fillers and precursor derived ceramics etc. Also it has been mentioned more recent processes and applications, briefly.
Carbon nanomaterials based enzymatic electrochemical sensing
Rooma Devi, India,
This book chapter aims to survey the current status of nanotechnology with particular emphasis on carbon nanomaterials (CNM) in electrochemical biosensors. Carbon nanomaterials have merged as an excellent sensing platform. These materials have been prospected as promising carriers or support for enzyme immobilization. The CNM based enzyme nanobiosensors are notable for the high surface area, which allow many simultaneous detection events. This chapter has been started with CNM such as carbon nanotubes, graphene, nanodiamonds, fullerenes, carbon nanoonion, carbon nanohorns, carbon nanofibers and carbon nanodot and their composite for electrochemical sensing of glucose, dopamine, cholesterol, creatinine, bilirubin, ascorbic acid, xanthine, hypoxanthine, uric acid and amino acid. CNM based composite have been fabricated and their novel properties are being gradually discovered and their applications have also greatly advanced the performance of biosensors. CNM based nanobiosensors have generated a great deal of excitement due to their ability to detect a wide range of materials at incredibly small concentrations
Nanostructured ceramics and bioceramics for bone cancer treatment
Barbara Palazzo, Italy
The focus in bioceramics research has evolved, facing new challenges in the fields of cancer therapy, among others. In the development of cancer treatments, the balance between therapy efficacy and medication side effects is always an issue. Nanotechnology provides a number of new therapies that could potentially provide better treatment for patients. For example, by using biocompatible nanomaterials, we can employ nanocarriers, passive and active targeting techniques, hyperthermic strategies, and many other mechanisms to target tumors.
This chapter will address the above-described general concepts to bone cancer, which is among the most invasive and with lowest survival probability tumors. In this case, following cancerous bone excision, concealing the bone tissue loss is necessary and to this aim materials designed for bone replacement are requested. Moreover, a subsequent antitumor treatment needs to be carried out to avoid recurrence.
In this context two particular strategies both aimed to address the chemotherapeutic treatment to the tumor site, will be focused:
– the employment of ceramic nanoparticles as targeted anticancer drug carriers to be exploited as injectable devices.
-the use of nanobioceramics as bone fillers with anticancer function to be implanted into the affected piece of bone.
To this aim, we will examine different nanoceramics and bio-nanoceramics (hydroxyapatite, amorphous calcium phosphates, magnetic oxide, bioglasses and magnetic calcium phosphates) that are currently being researched and developed not only for bone cancer treatment but also for the therapy of bone metastasis that can derive from not osseous tumors.
This chapter also includes discussions of a new class of potentially antimetastatic compounds, e.g., geminal bisphosphonates, that are in clinical use in the treatment of several bone-related diseases because of their high affinity for calcium ions and hence for bones. Due to this high affinity, they can also work as targeting agents, for the specific delivery and release of other drugs, and even of cytotoxic functionalities to bone tissue.
Therapeutic strategies for bone regeneration: the importance of biomaterials testing using adequate animal models
Luís Miguel Atayde, Portugal
In the last decades, there has been an increasing need for the use of bone grafts in orthopaedics, being currently the second most transplanted tissue, surpassed only by blood and its derivates. The biological behavior of a biomaterial is affected by both its chemical composition and its physical proprieties. Regarding the chemical composition, synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA) is one of the most commonly used ceramics, especially due to its osteoconductivity, biocompatibility and its similarity to bone mineral phase. However, HA is brittle and essentially non-degradable. These limitations encouraged the development of HA forms with improved bioresorption, therefore, HA is often modified and combined with tricalcium phosphate (TCP) which have a faster resorption rate. Another important bone graft feature is the biomaterial architecture, with the presence of macropore / micropore / interconnective pore. This architecture and the format, shape or grain size are physical characteristics that could affect biomaterial biological behavior.
Further, attention will be given to significant in vivo testing models for bone grafting products, and its significance in the progression to clinical applications of such biomaterials.
Tuning hydroxyapatite particles characteristics for solid free fabrication of bone scaffolds
Restauration of damaged bone tissue involves two traditional approaches: tissue grafting and alloplastic replacement. Recently, their limitations led to development of tissue engineering, which uses degradable porous supports named „scaffolds”. These porous structures (used both for tissue engineering and classic bone substitution applications) with designed customizable may be constructed with solid freeform fabrication techniques. Solid freeform fabrication uses various synthetic materials and may be adapted for creating ceramic-based scaffolds, which became popular due to increased demands for bone substitution materials. Among these materials, naturally-derived ceramics are suitable candidates for bone replacement, due to their resemblance with the mineral bone.Innovative optimization routes for preparing naturally derived ceramics with modulated properties involve the management of key-parameters involved in heat treatment of animal hard tissues: temperature, heating environment and cooling conditions. Both powders and bulk pieces are evaluated with complementary techniques which focus on compositional, morphological and structural characterization. Finally, qualitative and quantitative evaluation of cellular viability and morphology after testing the compacted powders in cellular cultures may assist extensive testing programs for further evaluation of different ceramic scaffolds. All these results contribute to effective assessment of ceramics tuning strategies and to subsequent modulation of their enhanced properties and long-term functionality.
Carbon nanotubes reinforced bioceramic composite – An advanced coating material for orthopedic applications
Gopi Dhanaraj, India
In recent years, metallic implants have become essential therapeutic tools in orthopedic applications. Despite large number of metallic implants, titanium is the most significant components used in orthopaedic implant devices due to their reliable mechanical behaviour as replacement for hard tissues. In order to improve the bone implant contact,
a bioceramic coating is fabricated over metallic implant. For this purpose, an advanced composite material with enhanced mechanical and biological properties is developed over the metallic implants. This chapter presents the development of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) reinforced bioceramic (hydroxyapatite (HAP) and mineralized HAP (MHAP)) composite coating over titanium for biomedical applications. Hydroxyapatite has been widely used as a coating material for orthopedic applications due to its chemical similarity with natural bone mineral and capability to promote bone regeneration. Though it has many applications, its poor tensile strength and fracture toughness make it unsuitable for major load bearing applications. Carbon nanotubes have excellent mechanical properties and unique structural properties, good biocompatibility and less toxicity that categorised them as outstanding reinforcement materials for HAP. Thus, CNTs reinforced HAP and mineralized HAP coatings on titanium using electrodeposition method and pulsed electrodpeosition are developed with enhanced mechanical, corrosion resistance and biological properties for orthopedic applications.
Structural and hydroxyapatite-like surface functionalization of advanced biomimetic prototype interface for RA endoprostheses to enhance osteoconduction and osteointegration
Ryszard Uklejewski, Poland
Contemporary resurfacing arthroplasty (RA) endoprostheses applied in bone-and-joint surgery possess femoral component fixed in the periarticular bone of femoral head with a bone cement and with a short stem placed in femoral neck (e.g. Birmingham Hip (BHR) Implant (UK), Cormet 2000 (C2K) Implant (USA), DePuy & J&J RA Implant (USA), etc.). Massive cement penetration into intertrabecular marrow cavities of periarticular trabecular bone of femoral head often occupies more than 1/3 of its volume, causes regional blood supply insufficiency, which lead to the progressive weakening of the internal bone microstructure and results in failures. The short stem placed in femoral neck – due to the stress shielding phenomenon – disrupts the transmission of mechanical loads in trabecular bone of femoral neck. As consequences of these properties of contemporary RA endoprostheses, the postoperative complications occur (cracks in trabeculaes of periarticular bone, atrophy and extensive destruction of surrounding periprosthetic bone, loosening and migration of elements of endoprostheses, and even bone fractures . We present here the main results of our research regarding the structural and hydroxyapatite-like (HA-like) functionalization of advanced biomimetic prototype interface i.e. the additively manufactured Ti-alloy multispiked connecting scaffold (MSC-Scaffold) for entirely cementless RA endoprostheses to enhance its osteoconduction and osteointegration. The investigations were performed on several constructional variants of the MSC-Scaffold prototype possessing various geometrical structure of the multispiked surface interfacing with periarticular trabecular bone tissue, they were HA-like surface modified and non-modified. The possibilities of structural and HA-like functionalization of bone interfacing surfaces of this MSC-Scaffold were evaluated in human osteoblasts culture and in pilot experimental investigations on animal model (laboratory swine). Our advanced biomimetic Ti-alloy prototype interfacing with bone (i.e. the MSC-Scaffold prototype) manufactured owing to the advanced laser technology, opens new generation of the first biomimetic RA endoprostheses, which can be applied for most diarthrodial joint arthroplasties (hip, knee, shoulder, elbow, etc.) used in orthopaedic surgery treatment.