Hardcover: 544 pages Publisher: WILEY Scrivene USA
Language: English ISBN: 978-1-119-24252-9
Ashutosh Tiwari, Filiz Kuralay and Lokman Uzun
From the Editor–
Advance in Electrode Materials is one of the hot topics in the term of Advanced Materials due to their importance not only in developing new biosensors but also in designing efficient batteries, fuel cells and, of course, energy storages and conversion systems. In this respect, we tried to compile this hot topic as a part of Advanced Materials Book Series and present for your valuable aspects.
In this book, we created a story for recent advances in electrode materials and their novel applications at the cross-section of Advanced Materials. Electrochemistry is a widely used branch of chemistry which combines chemical and electrical effects. It provides high sensitivity, high performance and low-cost. In this concept, a well design of an electrode material is the key point of many applications. We summarized different electrodes used in different fields for enhancing the quality of the electrochemical systems. We started with a chapter related on advances in electrode materials particularly based on energy storage since an electrode is one of the important part of electrochemical capacitors as well as an energy storage and conversion products. The major classes of suitable electrode materials used for the capacitors are commonly activated nanoporous carbon, graphene, carbon nanotubes, conducting polymers, metal oxides and polymer composites, which have been extensively reported in literature. Diamond-based electrodes have found great attention in electrochemical systems.
Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) techniques were detailed to generate polycrystalline and nanocrystalline diamond layers, as well as the methodologies employed in order to dope the diamond phase and to obtain an electrically conductive material. Then, diamond-based layers for the assembling of electrodes were summarized to inform the readers in environmental area and renewable energies such as food and pharmaceutical analysis, soil and water purification, supercapacitors, Li ion cells and fuel cells. Recent advances in tungsten oxide/conducting polymer hybrid assemblies for electrochromic applications took place to emphasize the importance of developing new technologies that can be used for electrochromic applications. Tungsten oxide (WO3) has emerged as one of the key materials for electrochromic devices since it exhibits the best electrochromic activity among transition metal oxides. The introduction of WO3/conducting polymer-based hybrid materials has prompted the development of nanocomposites with properties unmatched by conventional counterparts. The interdisciplinary research involving materials science, bioelectrochemistry and electrochemistry is still the hallmark of many technological and fundamental breakthroughs. Effectiveness of surfactant-free metal nanoparticles as “abiotic” catalysts in biotechnology, based on systems harvesting energy from biological sources for various sensing and wireless information-processing devices for biomedical, homeland and environmental monitoring applications were outlined. Polyoxometalates (POMs) were summarized through the concepts of biosensors to renewable energy applications in another chapter. POMs are well-known class of discrete early transition metal-oxide clusters with a variety of sizes, shapes, composition and physical and chemical properties which undergo reversible multi-valence reductions/oxidations. Electrochemical sensors based on ordered mesoporous carbons were also highlighted since they provide high sensitivity and selectivity.
Conducting polymer-based electrochemical DNA biosensing were also detailed. Electrode materials for fuel cells lead to important reactions such as oxygen evolution reactions (OER), hydrogen evolution reactions (HER), and oxygen reduction reactions (ORR). In metal-air batteries and fuel cells, the most sluggish reaction is the ORR reaction which is the bottleneck of numerous electrochemical reactions. Key electrocatalytic reactions occur at the cathode of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Therefore, inexpensive materials that have high activity, stability, and resistance to methanol crossover effects for ORR-HOR and OER reactions were summarized in one of the chapters. In another chapter, study of phosphate polyanion electrodes and their performance with glassy electrodes for potential application in lithium ion solid state batteries took place in order to mention the importance of new generation solid state batteries. Then, in the related area conducting polymer based hybrid nanocomposites for lithium batteries were given. In the chapter, host-guest and core-shell hybrid nanocomposites based on conducting conjugated polymers and inorganic compounds, which are considered as active components of the lithium batteries were reported. Later on, electrode materials for fuel cell applications were categorized and evaluated in two separate parts as the catalyst supports and anode/cathode catalysts. Pt-based ones make the fuel cell technology less cost-effective due to limited supply and high cost of Pt. Thus, research on cost reduction of fuel cells deals with either optimization of existing Pt catalysts or development of Pt or non-Pt alloy catalysts with new and improved electronic structures. Novel photoelectrocatalytic electrode materials for fuel cell reactions were also summarized. The chapter mainly focuses on the recent progress of novel photo-responsive electrodes as anode catalysts for improving the photoelectrocatalytic activity of low molecular weight alcohols oxidation under light irradiation. Finally, advanced nanomaterials for the design and construction of anode materilas for microbial cells were detailed at the end of the book.
The distinguished researchers from ten different countries and from seventeen different affiliations have made the invaluable efforts to build up this comprehensive book in the perspective of Advanced Materials. By these widespread authorships, we hope that this book would make a contribution to the students and researchers as well as industrial partners from different fields.
Part 1: State-of-the-art electrode materials
Advances in electrode materials
Joanna Cabaj, Poland
The electrode is the key part of the electrochemical capacitors (also known as supercapacitors) as well as an energy storage and conversion products or other electrochemical devices, so the electrode materials are the most important factors to determine the properties of these tools.
The major classes of suitable electrode materials used for the capacitors as well as an energy storage and conversion materials or other electrochemical devices are activated nanoporous carbon, graphene, carbon nanotubes, conducting polymers, metal oxides and polymer composites, which have been extensively reported in literature. In addition, the well-known applications of advanced electrodes to metals production, energy storage in batteries and supercapacitors, and catalyst supports has appeared in a literature on both carbon materials and their interactions with electrolytes and redox systems.
Since the significant application of graphite electrodes for electrochemical production of alkali metals, carbon materials have been broadly used in both analytical and industrial electrochemistry. The often-cited benefits of carbon electrodes contain reasonable cost, wide potential window, relatively inert electrochemistry, and electrocatalytic activity for a variety of redox reactions.
Energy storage technics appears as one of the most promising options in harvesting renewably-generated energy during the optimum manufacture period for future use. Of the available electrical energy storage devices, fuel cells, batteries and capacitors have been the technology of choice for most applications.
Herein, the storage principles and characteristics of electrode materials, including carbon-based materials, transition metal oxides and conductive polymers for advanced electrodes are depicted briefly.
Emanuela Tamburri, Italy
This chapter deals with the use of diamond-based layers for the assembling of electrodes. Firstly are illustrated the various CVD (Chemical Vapor Deposition) techniques able to generate polycrystalline and nanocrystalline diamond layers, as well as the methodologies employed in order to dope the diamond phase and to obtain an electrically conductive material. The electrochemical properties of the conductive diamonds are reviewed and discussed in the light of the various applications proposed for these materials. Recent progresses of the research in diamond-electrochemistry and some relevant studies related to the environmental area (food and pharmaceutical analysis, soil and water purification) and to renewable energies (electrodes for supercapacitors, Li ion cells, fuel cells) are finally highlighted.
Recent advances in tungsten oxide/conducting polymer hybrid assemblies for electrochromic applications
Aysegul Uygun Oksuz, Turkey
Much effort is currently devoted to implementing new materials in electrodes that will be used in electrochromic (EC) technology. Tungsten oxide (WO3) has emerged as one of the key materials for EC devices since it shows the best EC activity among transition metal oxides. However; hybrid nanostructures have been investigated in order to enhance the EC properties. The introduction of WO3/conducting polymer-based hybrid materials has prompted the development of nanocomposites with properties unmatched by conventional counterparts. Combined with the intrinsic properties and synergistic effect of each component, it is anticipated that these unique organic−inorganic heterostructures pave the way for developing new functional materials. In the current chapter, some of these recent results on WO3/conducting polymer-based hybrid films are discussed, with selected examples chosen from among the deposition of layer-by-layer assembled hybrids, spin coated, dip coated materials, surface-initiated-polymerized, chemical bath deposited films, solvothermal and electropolymerized materials. In addition to discussing film-deposition techniques, an attempt will also be made to indicate how the resulting films might be useful for electrochromic device applications. These new generation of materials are evaluated as an electrode material of EC devices and exhibit improved optoelectronic properties.
Advanced surfactant-free nanomaterials for electrochemical energy conversion systems: from electrocatalysis to bionanotechnology
Têko W.Napporn, France
The interdisciplinary research involving Materials science, Bioelectrochemistry and Electrochemistry is still the hallmark of many technological and fundamental breakthroughs. Thus, foresee advanced electrode materials as innovative as effective while stepping up research in unexplored scientific endeavors is a key approach for developing groundbreaking devices. Different approaches have paved the way to prepared various nanoparticles (NPs) with scalable and switchable sizes, shapes and crystallographic structures; thus enable tuning their unique electronic, optical and catalytic properties. The preparation of active and efficient nanomaterials mainly in electrocatalysis becomes thereby a challenge to be taken up. This chapter aims at addressing the recent advances for using surfactant-free metal NPs to design efficient and stable electrode materials for electrochemical energy conversion technologies. Since the retained molecules decrease notably the electrode performances, the preparation of metal NPs without organic molecules and their properties are presented. Their electrocatalytic activity towards biomass-based compounds (glucose…) and performances in fuel cells together with the electrochemical synthesis of sustainable added-value chemicals from selective oxidation is addressed. We outlined their effectiveness as “abiotic” catalysts in bionanotechnology, based on systems harvesting energy from biological sources for various sensing and wireless information-processing devices for biomedical, homeland and environmental monitoring applications.
Part 2: Engineering of applied electrode materials
Polyoxometalate-based modified electrodes for electrocatalysis: from molecule sensing to renewable energy-related applications
Cristina Freire, Portugal
Polyoxometalates (POMs) are a well-known class of discrete early transition metal-oxide clusters with a variety of sizes, shapes, composition and physical and chemical properties which have gained increasing interest due to their application in a variety of scientific fields. One of their most important properties is the ability to undergo reversible multi-valence reductions/oxidations, leading to the formation of mixed-valence species, which brings about favourable electrocatalytic properties with regard to several electrochemical processes.
This chapter aims to overview the variety of efficient applications of free POM and POM-based (nano)composites as electrode modifiers, focusing predominantly on those applied to electrocatalysis. Firstly, the general methodologies used in the preparation of free POMs and POM-based (nano)composites and the different strategies used to surface electrodes modification are briefly described. Then, the role of POM-modified electrodes in reductive and oxidative electrocatalysis for detection/sensing of several (bio)molecules of interest are reviewed. Finally, the application of POM-based (nano)composites as electrocatalysts for the reduction/oxidation reactions relevant to renewable energy storage and conversion technologies is described.
Electrochemical Sensors Based on Ordered Mesoporous Carbons
Ming Zhou, China
In recent years, the application of ordered mesoporous carbons (OMCs) for electroanalysis has attracted extensive attention. An increasing number of publications involving OMCs-based sensors reflect that OMCs can be used as a kind good candidate of electrode materials for OMCs-based electrochemical sensors fabrication. In this chapter, recent progress and latest advances on the design and construction of OMCs-based (i.e., single material of OMCs, redox mediators functionalized OMCs, transition metal nanoparticles modified OMCs and OMCs support noble metal nanoparticles) electrochemical sensors are summarized. In addition, the challenges associated with OMCs-based electrochemical sensors and related future research directions are discussed.
Non-precious metal oxide and metal-free catalysts for energy storage and conversion
Steven Suib, United States of America
As primary energy demands will double within the next two decades, energy storage and conversion will be among the most significant concerns of the current century. Promising methods for energy storage and conversion include super-capacitors, batteries, and fuel cells. Electrode materials for fuel cells lead to important reactions such as oxygen evolution reactions (OER), hydrogen evolution reactions (HER), and oxygen reduction reactions (ORR). In metal-air batteries and fuel cells, the most sluggish reaction is the ORR reaction which is the bottleneck of numerous electrochemical reactions. Key electrocatalytic reactions occur at the cathode of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC).
Different types of advanced electrode materials have been designed to fulfill the global need for energy which can be categorized as follows: 1) noble metal based and 2) non-noble metal catalysts. The latter which will be the focus of this chapter including I) transition metal-nitrogen-carbon catalysts, II) transition metal oxides, chalcogenides, nitride, and oxynitrides, and III) metal-free catalysts. Researchers globally are investigating alternatives for state-of-the-art catalysts such as Pt/C and Ir/C for fuel cells in ORR-HOR and OER, respectively. Therefore, the motivation in this research is to study inexpensive materials that have high activity, stability, and resistance to methanol crossover effects for ORR-HOR and OER reactions.
Study of phosphate polyanion electrodes and their performance with glassy electrolytes: potential application in Lithium ion solid state batteries
Marisa Frechero, Argentina
The world demand for new alternatives of energy storage has inevitably led the scientific and technological community to develop new devices that must have an environmentally clean, efficient performance and renewable use for a sustainable development. Considering this scenario, Lithium Ion Batteries play a leading role today.
In this chapter, we review some of our most recent results for electrolyte glassy systems -where the main ionic carrier is a Lithium cation, and nano-structured carbon composite materials for electrodes. Our main goal has been to improve not only the electrolyte ionic conductivity but also to reach a material for electrodes that fits -as good as it can- the interface between both; one of the most important issues to overcome in order to obtain a new generation of all-solid state batteries.
Conducting polymer based hybrid nanocomposites as promising electrode materials for lithium batteries
Olga Kozarenko, Ukraine
Great attention of researchers working in the fields of physical chemistry, molecular materials science and electrochemistry is currently attracted by creation of functional hybrid nanocomposites, among which conducting polymer based organic-inorganic nanocomposites possess a special place, because such materials often disclose functional characteristics that are not available to their bulk counterparts. That opens prospects for usage of hybrid nanocomposites as active components of the electrodes of lithium batteries, supercapacitors and other electrochemical devices.
This chapter is devoted to the host-guest and core-shell hybrid nanocomposites based on conducting conjugated polymers (polyaniline, polypyrrole, polythiophene, polydioxythiophene and others) and inorganic compounds (V2O5, LiFePO4, MoS2, Si, S and others), which are considered as active components of the lithium batteries electrodes. It is shown that the advantage of such hybrid nanocomposites as the electrode active ingredients consists in combination of useful properties of organic and inorganic constituents.
Particular attention is paid to the electrochemical properties of the hybrid nanocomposites prepared by mechanochemical method, which, in comparison with many conventional synthesis methods, greatly accelerates and simplifies the process of preparing such nanomaterials. It is shown that the resulting mechanochemically synthesized hybrid nanocomposites could possess high electrochemical performance due to their specific structure determined by the preparation method.
Energy Applications: Fuel Cells
Mutlu SÖNMEZ ÇELEBİ, Turkey
Fuel cells are regarded as promising energy sources for the future to replace the traditional systems which use fossil fuels. During the operation of a fuel cell, fuel is oxidized in the anode whereas reduction of the oxidant takes place in the cathode. In order to overcome the barriers for commercialization of fuel cells, progress in fuel cell technology is required especially in the aspects of cell performance and cost. To achieve increased performance and reduced cost, development of advanced electrode materials is crucial. One approach to prepare anode and cathode catalysts with improved characteristics is to support the anode and cathode materials onto a suitable matrix. Current research on support materials for fuel cell electrodes concentrate on carbon-based materials because of their good electrical and mechanical properties, however, non-carbon supports such as silica and titanium are also investigated. The most active anode and cathode materials are Pt-based ones which make the fuel cell technology less cost-effective due to the limited supply and high cost of Pt. Thus, research on cost reduction of fuel cells deals with either optimization of existing Pt catalysts or development of Pt or non-Pt alloy catalysts with new and improved electronic structures.
Novel photoelectrocatalytic electrodes materials for fuel cell reactions
Mingshan Zhu, Canada
Fuel cells are currently aroused tremendous research interest in both academic and engineering fields as alternative green and sustainable power sources. As a key component of fuel cells, anode electrocatalyst is under wide spread investigation. This chapter mainly focuses on the recent progress of novel photo-responsive electrodes as anode catalysts for improving the photoelectrocatalytic activity of low molecular weight alcohols (viz. methanol, ethanol and formic acid) oxidation under light irradiation. It involves the design and the architecting of advanced nanomaterials for light harvesting and enhanced photoelectrocatalytic performances of alcohols oxidation purposes. The reader will gain insight into the diversified routes to construct advanced photoelectrocatalytic electrode material systems, including the mechanism of photo&electro enhanced catalytic process, noble metal clusters engineering, semiconducting supports designs, etc. At the end of this chapter, the prospects of the photo-responsive electrodes for fuel cell reactions are also addressed briefly.
Advanced Nanomaterials for the Design and Construction of Anode for Microbial Fuel Cells
Ming Zhou, China
Nanomaterials with nanoscale dimensions are an emerging material with exceptional physicochemical properties, which can benefit the development of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) anode in different aspects. Nanomaterials-based anodes are able to boost the MFCs performance with higher specific surface area, more active microbe-electrode-electrolyte interaction, and improved electron transfer efficiency. Although many challenges (e.g., complexity in synthesis and property degeneration) still exit, advanced nanomaterials-based anode will be promising for developing MFCs and other interesting bioelectrochemical systems to achieve green energy production.
Conducting Polymer-Based Electrochemical DNA Biosensing
Filiz Kuralay, Turkey
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is one of the most important molecules of the life since it carries heritage information and intructs the biological synthesis of proteins and enzymes through the process of replication and transcription of genetic information in living organisms and many viruses. Detection of DNA sequences receives much attention. It plays a major role in clinical, forensic, environmental, food and pharmaceutical applications. It is also important to understand the structural properties of DNA and the action mechanism of some antitumor and antivirus drugs to design new and more efficient DNA targeted drugs. Among many DNA detection methods, electrochemical ones, which have many advantages over time consuming traditional methos, are very favorable. Electrochemistry offers sensitive, accurate, simple and low-cost analysis. Thus, electrochemical biosensors have classified as one of the most used biosensor types in terms of detecting DNA, DNA hybridization and DNA-anticancer drug interaction biosensing. The genetic information is encoded as a sequence of nucleotides named as guanine (G), adenine (A), thymine (T) and cytosine (C) which are electroactive. This makes electrochemistry very attractive for DNA detection. Furthermore, in order to enhance the signals of DNA bases various platforms such as conducting polymers, nanomaterials are used. Conducting polymers-based approaches provides suitable immobilization surface for DNA by incerasing the electroactive surface area of the electrode material. In addition, they serve as robust and stable surfaces.