Ashutosh Tiwari, Mikael Syväjärvi
Hardcover: 528 pages Publisher: WILEY-Scrivener,USA
Language: English ISBN: 978-1-118-77343-7
From the Editors-
The levels of toxic and microbial contamination in the food and environment are influenced by harvesting or slaughtering agro technologies and by the processes applied during food manufacture. With current cultivation methods, it is impossible to guarantee the absence of pesticides and pathogenic microorganisms on raw foods, both of plant and animal origin. Widespread and increasing incidence of foodborne diseases and the resultant social and economic impact on the world population have brought food and environmental safety to the forefront of ecological safety and public health concerns. The emerging field of advanced materials based on functional architectures offers potential solutions to some of the key performance challenges along with the improved sensitivity, longevity, stability, miniaturisation and ruggedness, while reducing complexity and production cost.
The overall purpose of this book is to generate new solutions to the technical challenges in easy and rapid detections of food toxicants, microorganisms and environmental pollutants. The book focuses consumption of food and water being an essential part of live detection of contaminating organisms and the presence of various toxic molecules with in water, food and beverages are one of the attentive areas to be monitored. Moreover, the development of fundamental methodologies and inventive nanotechnologies is a scientific and technology area that includes many aspects of energy and environment. The methodologies range from clay materials to aluminium alloys used in various applications, for example commonly in aeronautics industry. Nanotechnologies have expanded from semiconductors, photonics, health care processes to include environmental technology to reduce pollution. This raises the possibility to use nanotechnology for environmental applications through nanomaterials, processes and tools. In all cases the fundamental aspects of materials and methods are prerequisites for further use.
The chapter on Layered Double Hydroxides and Environment: An Overview gives an overview about layered double hydroxides can be used for decontamination of the environment. Clay materials have a variety of approaches, and the possibilities open up also for production since it can easily be synthesized by various cheap and ecofriendly methods. The common decontamination processes are by anion exchange, adsorption and catalytic remediation. The layered double hydroxides act to prevent the dispersion of pollutants in effluents or waste water, for example by precipitating agents of heavy metal cations, but recently also targeting molecules and inorganic substances. The chapter on Improvement of the corrosion resistance of aluminium alloys applying different types of silanes describe the approaches to protect aluminium alloy attacks by different surface treatments. The advantages of aluminium alloys are in the low density and good mechanical features, while certain alloys experience a high corrosion rate in comparison to pure aluminium. The alloys with different elements like copper, zinc, magnesium, and other metals, improve the mechanical strength. Still, unfortunately, corrosion treatments that exhibit good corrosion performance are commonly used even though these are very toxic, carcinogenic and allergic. The movement to more environmentally friendly process includes “green treatments”, as exemplified a reduced use of chromium solutions in favor of silanes. Silane coatings exhibit advantageous barrier properties due to the dense Si-O-Si network which substantially reduces the penetration of aggressive species to the metallic alloy. The barrier properties then need to be combined with understanding of defects in the barrier that causes localized corrosion processes. The quality of the protection layer from the treatment is dependent on parameters like treatment time, temperature, and chemistry of silane molecules. Further on, such treated surfaces would ideally also be matching with organic paint, for example by adhesion properties.
New generation material for the removal of arsenic from water considers the recovery and sorbent regeneration when a sorbent is exhausted. In particular, water treatment is an increasing urgent matter. With increasing industrial and agricultural activities, arsenic needs to be considered since it can be mobilized into surface water. Removal techniques may include solvent extraction and chemical precipitation as synthetic coagulants. The process to restore the sorbent close to its initial state from the metal recovery is a critical step. Subsequently, the arsenic needs to be properly handled and disposed after the recovery. Many metals may be recovered and reused, but this is not as straight forward for arsenic since it has limited markets. In the chapter Enhancement of physical and mechanical properties of sugar palm (Arenga Pinnata Merr.) fibre via vacuum resin impregnation a new technique is described of physical and mechanical properties enhancement of natural fibres and their composites. Natural fibres have high specific mechanical properties, have low cost, and are renewable and biodegradable but they are hydrophilic in nature since the natural fibres contain hydroxyl groups that make the fibres polar. The hydroxyl groups attract and hold water molecules through hydrogen bonding when the natural fibres are exposed to high humidity. This leads to swelling of the fibres and the presence of void that deteriorate the mechanical properties. Chemical or thermal treatments cause the treated hydroxyl groups to be less effective in absorbing moisture. The fibres can also be impregnated with thermosetting polymer via a vacuum resin impregnation process. This enhances the properties of the fibres to be used for composite reinforcement. In the chapter Environment friendly acrylates based polymer lattices, the development of suitable coating by synthetic polymers is discussed. Such polymers are widely used in packaging and construction. Acrylic resins have great durability and weather resistance. The barrier properties are obtained through copolymerisation with more hydrophobic monomers. The type of monomer, its sequence length distribution and polymer weight affect the transition temperature and viscoelastic modulus of the polymer to have a film with high clarity, good stability and high mechanical strength.
The chapter Nanoparticles for trace analysis of toxins: The present and future scenario defines advances and applications of nanotechnology for removal of water pollutants. Novel nanotechnology approaches make it possible to explore various nanometallic particles for pollutants extraction. Nano-remediation can clean with reduced clean-up time without need of eliminating treatment and disposal of contaminated soil. Nanoparticle attributions are high surface to volume ratio, easy modification and simple synthesis methods. In a photo catalytic process the organic pollutants are destroyed in combination of nanoparticles with oxidizing agents. In some cases pollutants adsorb poorly on nanoparticles, their surfaces may then be modified by physical or chemical modification with functional groups. In further use, nanobiorecognition materiala are developed as sensing receptors. In the chapter Recent development on gold nanomaterial as a catalyst for oxidation reaction through green & sustainable route the design of reaction specific catalyst high-lights nanomaterials as key technology for green chemistry. In this the oxidation reaction can provide large quantities of agents, for example gold nanoparticles as catalyst for oxidation reactions in the gas phase. This is given by a combination of gold particle size, nature of support material and type of reaction. The interaction between gold nanoparticles and the oxide modifies the electronic structure of gold and is important for the type of chemical reaction.
An overview of nanosize oxides is given in the chapter Nanosized metal oxide based adsorbents for heavy metal removal: A review. A high surface area and specific affinity for heavy metal adsorption from the aqueous phase make nanosized metal oxides attractive for water purification. The methods for fabrication, physicochemical and adsorption properties, as well as application for heavy metal removal from the aqueous phase are described. The reversible nature of some adorption processes high-light these for heavy metal removal from waste water. In this aspect the size becomes important since the change in surface energy leads to change in stability. Other issues that needs further attention is aggregation into large-size particles and capacity loss. In the chapter Phytosynthesized transition metal nanoparticles – novel functional agents for textiles with future prospects the biological systems are high-lighted as green synthesis of nanoparticles. Plants for making metal nanoparticles are environmental approaches due to the biocompatibility, low toxicity and environmental nature. The plants have most promise as they seem suitable for large-scale biosynthesis, compared to microprobes and enzymes. Also, new functionalities with integration into textile materials may appear. Some of the metals produces are gold, silver and palladium, and other nanoparticles like copper. Zinc and cadmium oxide have gained interest in catalysis, sensors and photonic devices. The details of plants that produce nanoparticles are not known, which makes this field of great scientific interest. In the chapter Functionalized magnetic nanoparticles for heavy metal removal from aqueous solutions: Kinetics and equilibrium modelling magnetic nanoparticles are placed in the foreground as platform for detection and separation applications. These particles can be composed of both inorganic and organic components, which position such system to potentially tune properties of the hybrid materials for appropriate functions due to the small size, biocompatibility and superparamagnetic properties.
In the chapter Potential applications of nanoparticles as antipathogens the microorganisms (pathogens) face the nanostructures which can find wide applications for use as antipathogens (substance which are used to kill, deactivate and control the pathogens) since the pathogens are responsible for millions of diseases, disability and deaths. Nanoparticles such as silver, gold, titanium dioxide and zinc oxide are receiving considerable attention as antimicrobials. Living organisms are built of cells which have a micrometer size, but the cells parts are much smaller and proteins have similar dimensions as nanoparticles. The nanoparticles can act as small probes that would allow to work on cellular level without too much interference. They can provide useful ways but also be harmful to human and other living beings. In the chapter Gas barrier properties of biopolymer based nanocomposites: Application in food packing biopolymers and protein based nanobiocomposites are described in respect to gas barrier properties, and holds a promise by a lowering in oxygen permeability. In food packaging most materials are more or less undegradable. New biomaterials could be more environmentally friendly and even both edible and biodegradable. Still there are issues in the combination of performance, processing and cost. In performance, they are water sensitive and have limited mechanical properties with high brittleness. Nanocomposites as packaging materials are still in their infancy. In the chapter Application of zero-valent iron nanoparticles for environmental clean-up one of the most widely studies nanoparticles, zero-valent iron, is presented. The attraction lies in the combination of nanosize and excellent reducing capability results in a powerful remediation tool for reducing toxic and hazardous wastes. The zero-valent iron can be injected into groundwater and aquifers to treat contaminated systems. At the same time it interacts with the contaminant and biotic component of the system. Finally, the chapter Typical synthesis and environmental application of novel TiO2 nanoparticles introduces a review on titanium dioxide nanoparticles as a player in environmental protection and implementation of techniques to remove inorganic or organic pollutants from wastewater. An attraction is that titanium dioxide nanoparticles have porous structures and a high photocatalytic activity and are easily recovered for reuse. This book is written for readers from diverse backgrounds across chemistry, physics, materials science and engineering, medical science, pharmacy, biotechnology, and biomedical engineering. It can be used not only as a textbook for both undergraduate and graduate students, but also as a review and reference book for researchers in the field. We hope that chapters of this book will give a valuable insight in the major area of nanosafety, green materials and respective technologies to the readers.
Description of Book-
Natural polysaccharides and their derivatives as renewable materials for application in health, food or in the environment- Structure/properties relationship
Josiane Courtois, Fance
Fly ash filled aluminum matrix syntactic foams
Nikhil Gupta, USA
Prediction and optimization of heavy clay products quality
Milica Arsenović, Russia
Vegetable seed oil polyesteramide coating materials for corrosion protection
Fahmina Zafar, Saudi Arabia
Microstructure implication on properties of cement based materials
Enhancement of physical and mechanical properties of natural fibre via vacuum resin impregnation
M. Sapuan, USA
Silicon and TiO2 semiconductor photocatalysts for water splitting reaction
Rajganesh Pala, USA
Typical synthesis and environmental application of nobble TiO2 nanoparticles
Tanmay Ghorai, India
Application of zero-valent iron nanoparticles for environmental clean up
Virandra Misra, Korea
Recent development of natural fibre reinforced composite material
Dipul Kalita, Australia
There’s plenty of room in the field of zeolite-Y enslaved nanohybrid materials as eco-friendly catalysts: Selected catalytic reactions
Chetan K Modi, USA
Encapsulation of transition metal complexes in fly ash based zeolites, and their catalytic activity
Peter Amala Dhas, Singapore
Nanosized metal oxide based adsorbents for heavy metal removal
Deepak Pathania, Canada
Phytosynthesized transition metal nanoparticles- Novel functional agents for textiles with future prospects
Faqeer Mohammad, France
Application of engineered nanomaterials for the treatment of water/wastewater
Varsha Srivastava, India