Ashutosh Tiwari and Mikael Syväjärvi
Hardcover: 544 pages Publisher: WILEY-Scrivener,USA
Language: English ISBN: 978-1-119-24249-9
From the Editor–
Nanoscale materials exhibit extraordinary physical and chemical features which play very important for their applications in advanced technologies. Due to their technological relevance, these materials have been major driving forces for academia as well as industries to lay down the foundation of new smart products for the welfare of society. During last couple of decades, a significant progress been made in the direction of developing new types of nanomaterials by various methods, i.e., physical, chemical, biological, including unconventional strategies as direct inspiration from nature. The functionality of these nanoscale structures increases when they are further functionalized with different atomic, molecular, and biological entities, etc. in form of hybrids, composites. The intelligent materials exhibit the capability to respond the change inform of any signal, chemical, electrical, optical, etc., as a consequence of any external defined stimuli. The functional nanoscale materials are the best suited in the class of intelligent materials. A lot of progress has already been made in the last decades in the direction of intelligent materials and emergence of specific material features engineered by exploiting the excellent nanoscale features is witnessed.
The use of nanomaterials in very small dimensional form is not something new, actually it has been continued since ancient times, for example ‘Swarna Bhasma in Ayurveda- the ancient medical system of India’ but the term ‘nanotechnology’ was coined in 1959 from the very famous talk, ‘There is a plenty of scape at the bottom’ by Prof. Richard Feynman. At these very small length scales, the materials exhibit entirely new properties in comparison to their bulk counterparts. Nanomaterials belong to important class of materials in which at least one dimension is in the nanometer region, at least in the range of 1-100 nm. As the dimension of the materials is reduced, the surface to volume ratio increases and in nanometer range it increases more drastically (almost every atom is at the surface). The surface of any material is considered as the defect because the periodicity breaks down and each atom at the surface- so called ‘dangling atom’, is loosely bound as compared to atoms in the interior. With reduction in size, the surface contribution, i.e., the density of dangling atoms increases significantly which leads to very high surface free energies of these nanomaterials. The very high surface energy of these nanomaterials leads extraordinary physical and chemical properties which are very suitable for their advance applications in the field of physical, chemical and biomedical engineering, etc.
As far as the length scales are concerned, the 1-100 nm is not an absolute definition for material to be called as nanomaterials. The quantum confinement effect, i.e., discretization in electronic states below certain dimensions, should be taken as appropriate concept for defining the dimensions of nanoscale materials which is De Broglie wavelength for that particular material. Based on dimensional confinement, nanomaterials are typically classified as 0D, 1D and 2D materials and each of them exhibit important properties suitable for different applications. However, the dimensional classification is also not limited to De Broglie wavelength value, people have defined their own terminologies as per utilization simplicities. Even a bulk material which is loaded with nanoscale particles from other materials, for example, gold nanoparticles on a polymer fibre, can be called as nanomaterial because it exhibits all the nanoscale features necessary for certain applications. Actually these are rather more important in terms of intelligent nanomaterials because on one hand they exhibit extraordinary features but on other hand these features are easily accessible in any desired form due to their dimensionally compact designs in form of devices, sensors, composites, etc.
In bulk from, the properties materials are only of interest for particular applications, but when these materials are transformed into nanomaterial, they are interest for almost every application because of their totally different properties. Therefore, creation of different nanomaterials by different strategies has always been of interest and has been on high priority. The top-down, and bottom-up growth strategies have been very common in last decade and they indeed have delivered remarkable progress in the direction of commercialization of nanomaterials in form smart technologies and products. But in last couple of years, progresses in the direction of unconventional Nano structuring strategies have shown significant potential. Efficient utilization of nanoscale properties has always been a challenge apart from synthesis because in order to extract their response, they have to be interfaced with the devices in the real world. Clean room technologies were very much in trend for nano-integration but in order to overcome cost with limitations like, high costs, long processing time, etc., new form of nanomaterial has been introduced, which is known as 3D nanomaterials. These 3D nanomaterials are made from nanoscale building blocks, which exhibit the desired nanoscale features and are also large enough (~ cm3 scale) to be easily utilized for any desired applications. Mixed top-down and bottom-up strategies are followed to fabricate these materials but conventional methods like making pores by selective chemical etching also provide efficient 3D nanostructuring. These 3D nanomaterials are rather important for advance applications because they can be easily functionalized with desired molecular species and are very potential intelligent nanomaterial candidates. Therefore, a large variety of nanomaterials already exist and new form of nanomaterials are being developed which can play very important role in advancing our society by introducing smart technological products using intelligent nanomaterials. Thus, these very small materials can make a very big impact in human life.
Keeping in mind the importance of these very small materials in our society, we decided to let the scientific as well as general communities know about what is going on in this direction in form of regular book series entitled ‘Intelligent Nanomaterials’. The first edition of this book was published in Nov 2011, in which covered brief overviews about advanced inorganic and organic nanomaterials, in terms of fabrications, characterizations and applications. In the meantime, this field has witnessed some further advanced developments to which we planned to brief in 2nd Edition of Intelligent Nanomaterials. The second edition of intelligent nanomaterials book focusses in the direction of compound nanomaterials for advanced biomedical applications, smart nanomaterials for energy storage, carbon nanomaterials nanoelectronics, biosensing and based advanced composites. Special emphasis has been given on the fundamental information, materials synthesis, characterizations, and applications in a detailed elaborative form providing broad perspective to readers. We have tried our best to cover each and every prospectus in a detailed manner so that readers can get a broad idea about the fundamentals behind intelligent nanomaterials and their advanced application scopes.
In overall, this book presents a detailed and comprehensive overview about the state-of-art development of different nanoscale intelligent materials for advanced applications. Apart from fundamental aspects of fabrication and characterization of nanomaterials, this book covers key advanced principle involved in utilization of functionalities of those nanomaterials in appropriate forms. It is very important to develop and understand the state-of-art principles about how to utilize the nanoscale intelligent features in desired fashion. These unique nanoscopic properties can either be accessed when the nanomaterials are prepared in appropriate form, for example, composites, or in integrated nanodevice form for direct use as electronic sensing devices. In both the cases, the nanostructure has to be appropriately prepared, carefully handled, and properly integrated in the desired for efficiently accessing their intelligent features and these aspects have been overviewed here in detail in three themed sections inclusive with relevant chapters. This book covers fundamental principles behind fabrication of different nanomaterials, composites, nanoelectronics devices and accordingly their applications in targeted drug deliveries, energy harvesting, memory devices, electrochemical biosensing including other advanced composite based biomedical applications and will be of interest for interdisciplinary readers from physics, materials science, nanoscience, biomaterials, engineering and most importantly from biomedical materials related life science communities.
The book is written for general readers from interdisciplinary backgrounds across physics, chemistry, materials science and engineering, nanotechnology, biosensors and bioelectronics, biomaterials science, nanobiotechnology, and advanced biomedical engineering. It offers a comprehensive overview of state-of-art research on nanoscale intelligent materials. We would like to express our gratitude to all the contributors for their collective and fruitful work. It is their efforts and expertise that made the monograph comprehensive, valuable and unique. We are also grateful to Sachin Mishra and Sophie Thompson, managing editors of Advanced Materials Series for their help and useful suggestion in preparing this book.
Description of Book-
Part 1: Nanomaterials, fabrication and biomedical applications
Advanced Electrospinning Materials for Skin Tissue Engineering
Beste Kinikoglu, Turkey
Electrospinning: a versatile technique to synthesize drug delivery systems
Tianyan You, China
Electrospray jet emission: an alternative theory invoking only dielectrophoretic forces
Advanced silver and oxide hybrids of catalysts during formaldehyde production
Anita Kovaè Kralj, Slovenia
Physicochemical characterization and basic research principles of advanced drug delivery nano systems (aDDnSs)
Natassa Pippa, Greece
Nanoporous alumina as an intelligent nanomaterial for biomedical applications
Moom Sinn Aw, Australia
Nanomaterials: Structural peculiarities, biological effects and some aspects of applications
Nickolaj Starodub, Ukraine
Biomedical applications of intelligent nanomaterials
Lobat Tayebi, USA
Part 2: Nanomaterials for energy, electronics and biosensing
Phase change materials as smart nanomaterials for thermal energy storage in buildings
Mohammad Kheradmand, Portugal
Nanofluids with enhanced heat transfer properties for thermal energy storage
Manila Chieruzzi, Italy
Resistive switching of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes for advanced nanoelectronics devices
O.A. Ageev, Russia
Multi-objective design of nanoscale double gate MOSFET devices using surrogate modelling and global optimization
Graphene-based electrochemical biosensors: new trends and applications
Dimitrios Nikolelis, Greece