Ajay Kumar Mishra, Ashustosh Tiwari, Shivani B. Mishra, Hisatoshi Kobayashi
Hardcover: 248 pages Publisher: VBRI Press
Language: English ISBN: 978-81-920068-01
From the Editors-
Medicinal chemistry always has the key role in the development of medicine, coordination chemistry, plant biology, the technologies developed by biochemists and molecular biologists. It has been utilized to reveal a more detailed understanding of the molecules and mechanisms that sustain life.
Let us introduce the comprehensive book covers the expanding field of drug delivery, organometallics, chemotherapy, clinical and pharmaceutical aspects that will represent the perfect starting point for beginners but also an excellent source of high quality information for experts in the field.
This book has been edited by a pioneer in the field with an excellent standing within the community, it begins with the drug delivery, before going on to cover pharmaceuticals, bioorganometallic chemistry, clinical and pharmaceuticals. It will help to the bioinorganic chemists, the pharmaceutical industry, chemists working in organometallics and biochemists.
The book will be highly understandable to all the students, biochemists, pharmacists due to its meaningful understanding of biochemistry. It also includes a wide research area that integrates biology, chemistry, materials science, engineering and nanotechnology to present an interdisciplinary approach for solving multitude problems.
Although much advancement is taking place in these fields with regard to biomolecules in medicine, no latest books and edited collections are available those have well summary of these versatile studies and hence this book attempts to address that ambiguity.
In précis, the first two chapters of the book are devoted on drug-delivery, a chapter 3 details the use of nanocomposite for chronological disorders, and chapter 4 describes the details of metal chelates in medicine. Whereas, chapter 5 introduces the nanotechnology in cancer chemotherapy, chapter 6 is describing about the significance, prevention and control of mycotoxins, chapter 7 sum ups the pharmaceutical application of chitosan and chapter 8 details physiological and clinical impact of antibiotics, antimicrobial agents and hormonal substances widely used in poultry and animal husbandry industries as prophylactic, therapeutic agents for the intention to promote productivity of animals. Moreover, chapter 9 is more focused on the metal complex fight against bacteria and chapter 10 has details of binding interaction of biomolecules.
Several books with each composed of many chapters are probably not enough to cover all details in the field of smart biomolecules in medicine. Thus, this book may fall short of some latest researches. Fortunately, we have done our best and included some of the most heavily studied areas, which are of interest to a broad range of investigators and researchers. Overall, current book intends to provide the most recent advances done in the field of drug delivery, cancer diagnosis, organometallics, chronological disorders, prevention and control of mycotoxins, clinicals and pharmaceuticals that will serve as direction and important reference for scientists, teachers, students and researchers. We would like to thank the VBRI Press for publishing this book. We also appreciate all contributors for their works that have made this book possible. We believe that this book will provide valuable information to researchers and will be used as a specialized reference and text book.
Description of the Book
Chapter 1. Saccharides- nanocarriers for drug delivery
Ashutosh Tiwari, Ajay K. Mishra, and Hisatoshi Kobayashi
The amphiphilic systems based on polysaccharides and their derivatives as drug delivery nanocarriers have recently gained much interest due to their biocompatibility, biodegradability, ability to form hydrophobic clusters, drug loading and controlled release properties. They are mostly used as nano-sized micelles which are supramolecular core-shell structures formed by self-aggregation of individual amphiphilic macromolecules comprised of hydrophobic and hydrophilic domains. This book chapter discuss about the polysaccharides and their important amphiphilic derivatives that have been studied and exploited as carriers for drug delivery applications. Specific attention has been drowning on the preparation amphiphilic nanocarriers with some important polysaccharides viz. alginate, dextran, carrageenan, hyaluronic acid, guar gum and xanthan and their derivatives.
Chapter 2. Nano-drug delivery systems: advances in TB, HIV and malaria treatment
Boitumelo Semete, Lonji Kalombo, Lebogang Katata, and Hulda Swai
The field of drug development experiences very low success rates with regards to drugs that enter the market. These shortfalls are due to factors such as toxicity of the therapeutic compounds, poor solubility leading to lowered bioavailability and thus reduced efficacy. Various approaches have been explored to address these challenges with little success. Nanotechnology based drug delivery systems have been investigated for this purpose. Physicochemical properties of nanoparticles such as their small size, large surface area, surface charge and ability to functionalise them makes them potential delivery systems for effective therapies. This chapter discusses each of these parameters in detail. Furthermore, the potential on nanotechnology based drug delivery systems in treating TB, HIV and Malaria are illustrated in detail. The pharmocokinetic parameters of therapeutic drugs against these diseases that present limitations in their efficacy are discussed. These include poor bioavailability, adverse side effects due to the high doses administered, long treatment and the emergence of drug resistant strains. The advances that nanotechnology based drug delivery systems have made in improving the pharmacokinetics and efficacy of therapeutic drugs for these diseases are addressed in detail. This chapter also highlights advances made in targeting infected tissues using nanoparticles delivery systems. Nanotechnology based drug delivery systems, have advanced quite significantly in the treatment of cancer, where a number of products are already in the market however, it is evident from this review that much work still needs to be conducted to fully exploit the potential of nanotechnology drug delivery systems for infectious diseases.
Chapter 3. Chitosan based nanocomposites for chronological disorders
Ajit K. Sharma, Ajay K. Mishra, and Shivani B. Mishra
Chitosan are biopolymers having structural possibilities for chemical and mechanical modifications to generate novel properties, functions and applications especially in biomedical area. Chitosan are effective materials in medical science because of their biocompatibility, biodegradability and non-toxicity, apart from their antimicrobial activity and low immunogenicity, which clearly points to an immense potential for future development. These biopolymers can be easily processed into gels, fiber, membranes, beads and scaffolds forms. This chapter emphasizes different aspects of chitosan based nanocomposite, including the preparation and applications of chitosan based nanoparticles, microspheres, fibers, and nanocomposite scaffolds for drug delivery, nasal delivery, gene delivery, wound dressing, tissue engineering, and cancer diagnosis.
Chapter 4. Metal chelates in biomedicals
Anand D. Tiwari, Ajay K. Mishra, Shivani B. Mishra, and Bhekie B. Mamba
The biologically important metal ions studies are covered in this chapter. The inorganic elements are divided into two category essential and nonessential elements. The bioinorganic and inorganic medicinal chemistry are the branches of chemistry to study the bio significant inorganic compounds. The role of metal ion in the biological chemistry are the inspirational tools for the designing the smart bioinorganic molecule. These inorganic molecules are important as drugs. The action of the inorganic molecule on the cellular target study is helping to develop the better drugs for chronic disease like anticancer. The nucleic acid (DNA) and other than DNA target mechanism of the action of drug are discussed in this chapter. The catalytic role of metals is responsible for the enzyme activity in the biological processes. The enzyme inhibitions as inorganic drug target are also discussed in this chapter. The antimicrobial inorganic metal complexes medicinal important is also a very important class of the bioinorganic chemistry. A few aspect drug delivery of inorganic drugs are discussed, how the inorganic drug reached to their specific target.
Chapter 5. Application of nanotechnology in cancer therapy
Narendra Kumar Verma, Deepak Mishra, Jyoti Mishra, and Rajeev Mishra, Ashutosh Tiwari
Cancer is leading cause of death; with more than 10 million people diagnosed disease annually. It is a highly complex disease to understand because it entails multiple cellular physiological systems such as cell signaling and apoptosis. It is clear that the effort are being made is slow and insufficient. Nanotechnology refers to the interactions of cellular and molecular components and engineered materials-typically, clusters of atoms, molecules, and molecular fragments into incredibly small particles-between 1 and 100 nm. Nanometer-sized particles have novel optical, electronic, and structural properties that are not available either in individual molecules or bulk solids. The concept of nanoscale devices has led to the development of biodegradable self-assembled nanoparticles, which are being engineered for the targeted delivery of anticancer drugs and imaging contrast agents. Nanoconstructs such as these should serve as customizable, targeted drug delivery vehicles capable of ferrying large doses of chemotherapeutic agents or therapeutic genes into malignant cells while sparing healthy cells. Such “smart” multifunctional nanodevices hold out the possibility of radically changing the practice of oncology, allowing easy detection and then followed by effective targeted therapeutics at the earliest stages of the disease. In this chapter, we briefly discuss the use of nanoparticles for the delivery and targeting of anticancer drugs.
Chapter 6. Mycotoxins and human health: significance, prevention and control
Njobeh B. Patrick, Dutton F. Michael, and Makun A. Hussaini
Mycotoxins are diverse range of harmful secondary metabolites produced by fungi in various food and feed commodities at different stages in the field, during processing, transportation and storage. Generally, the fungi mainly associated with mycotoxin production belong to the Aspergillus, Penicillium and the Fusarium genera that often contaminate and compromise food safety and quality. Their presence in foods and feeds is inevitable and as such, humans and animals are exposed to them on a daily basis leading to a wide range of health effects. Human exposure to mycotoxins is mainly via ingestion of contaminated foods, but other routes: inhalation parental and dermal exposures are involved. Even though the problem of mycotoxin is worldwide, the situation in most African (also Asian) countries is more than doubled that of the rest of the world exacerbated by the climatic, socio-economic and political situations in the continent. Because this chapter is devoted to such important mycotoxins as aflatoxins (AF), fumonisins (FB) and ochratoxins (OT) in Africa, an attempt is made to provide an update on the current state of occurrence in different commodities, of some important mycotoxins as well as the degree of human exposure and associated health implications. Furthermore, an effort is made to review some aspects of risk assessment of mycotoxins and control strategies from the African perspective taking into account some of the challenges and needs in mycotoxin analyses.
Chapter 7. Chitosan in therapeutics
Ashutosh Tiwari, Shivani B. Mishra, and Hisatoshi Kobayashi
Deacetylation of chitin affords chitosan, a polymer, widely studied for pharmaceutical applications. Chitosan possesses modulated physical and biological properties as chelating, sorption, moisture retention, cell functioning antioxidant, antibacterial, antiapoptotic etc. Chitosan is used in sustained or controlled release drug delivery, pH responsive drug delivery, DNA delivery as permeation enhancer etc. The present chapter puts forward the different aspects of the structure, properties and also elaborates its pharmaceutical applications. Different schematic presentation herein will make an easy understanding of its properties and application mechanisms.
Chapter 8. Physiological effects and potential clinical impact of veterinary therapeutic agents used as growth promoters to human health
Titus Alfred Makudali Msagati
A variety of antibiotics, antimicrobial agents and hormonal substances are used widely in poultry and animal husbandry industries as prophylactic, therapeutic agents and for the intention to promote productivity of animals (fattening). In most cases, residues of these growth promoters are found in the animal products available for human consumption, eg animal tissue and milk or eggs in cases of poultry farming. The mechanism in which fattening occurs is believed to be due to the antibiotics’ ability to alter the normal, non-pathogenic flora of the gut resulting into changes associated with beneficial effect on digestive processes as well as the utilization of nutrients in feed. For example antibiotics added to the animal feed are said to be capable of altering the activities of microbes and hence prevent some the loss to microbial fermentation thus enhance uptake of nutrients. However, the concerns about the presence of residues of the antibiotics and their metabolites in edible animal food products such as milk other meat products of animals or eggs and their negative effects to human health negates their intended advantages in animal husbandry and poultry farms industries. This has prompted the need to conduct to evaluate the physiological changes associated with the various growth promoters’ residues that may be found in animal products. The results from exposure of a number of hormones, antibacterial and antibiotics have been reported by many researchers. There is a need to introduce education program on the awareness of the dangers the consumers face and that proper regulation and policy with regard to the use and monitoring of such pharmaceuticals in animal husbandry and poultry industries should be put in place to safeguard the safety and health status of consumers.
Chapter 9. Metal derived complexes for the improved fight against bacteria
Elvis Fosso-Kankeu and Ajay K. Mishra
Improper use of drugs has contributed to the occurrence of drug resistant bacteria, not sensitive to some antibacterial compounds. Pathogenic bacteria contaminating surfaces and infecting plants and humans cause serious economical and social problems. These problems are likely to be worsened with the incapability of drug discovery programmes to design more effective drugs that could destroy resistant bacteria. Transition metal complexes have a multi inhibitory actions against bacteria resulting from the effects of metal and ligand; Owing to their potent effects these compounds are intensively studied nowadays and considered to supersede drugs that are ineffective against emerging and reemerging diseases. In this chapter we discuss the techniques used to control microorganism (especially bacteria) in surfaces, the mechanism of plants and humans infection, and the mode of action of existing drugs against pathogenic bacteria. How bacteria develop resistance is described and the inhibitory action of individual metal or ligand as well as the complex is also reviewed.
Chapter 10. Significance of binding interactions between drugs and biomolecules with plasma proteins in clinical practices
Anita Mitico Tanaka-Azevedo, and Titus Alfred Makudali Msagati
The measurements and understanding of the processes involved when drugs or other biomolecules such as toxins, poisons etc interacts with plasma proteins is very crucial in determining the fate of ingested biological products (drugs) once introduced in the body as well as how they are eliminated. This is due to the fact that the drug activity in the body is depended on the levels of the free biomolecules (drug) in the blood and also the measure at which the drug binds to the plasma proteins determines the mechanisms in which the drug will be distributed and eliminated from the body. If the drug is binding strongly to a plasma protein, it will thus imply that it is more retaining, thus the ratio distributed to other body tissues becomes low and vice versa. This phenomenon will then have an implication on the compound’s clinical and pharmacological effects as it will determine the levels of the free drug needed to act on a targeted biological molecule in the body. On the other hand, the concentrations of the free drug molecules available for metabolic activity may be limited by massive interactions between drug and plasma proteins. Moreover, drugs with minimal plasma binding capabilities tends to have the ability to penetrate body tissues much better as compared to those with strong binding character though they become excreted faster as well implying that they tend to have a shorter half-life. Since drugs, normally bind to a number of plasma proteins as well as other biological molecules such as nucleic acids or blood cells, in vivo binding measurements and in vitro drug-plasma protein binding can be done to know whether drug binding to other biological molecules apart from the target plasma protein has taken place. This can be ascertained in cases where the extent of in-vivo binding is greater than the in-vitro binding. Taking into consideration the fact that there are physiological factors such as pregnancy or stress that are known to alter levels of some of the plasma proteins, the measurements of the levels of the free drug components is always considered to ascertain the accurate value of the extent of binding. The bound portion of the drug remains in the blood system and the free fraction of the drug may either become be metabolized or extracted, and measured as the active part of the drug.