Graphene Bioelectronics

Graphene Bioelectronics

Ashutosh Tiwari

Hardcover: 388 pages   Publisher: Elsevier USA

Language: English        ISBN: 9780128133491

From the Editor-

The legacy of graphene research at the interfaces of bioengineering and nanotechnology empowered bioelectronics innovations. Recently, “graphene bioelectronics” is much broadly described arena in the cross-disciplinary field of biosensors. The leading scientists and graphene experts demonstrated the bioelectronics at nanoscale and the bioengineering communities specified inputs for range of applications. This book is composed with expending field of graphene biomaterials, a wide span of biotechnological breakthrough, opportunities, possibilities and compile challenges. It is very first book on graphene bioelectronics:  miniaturisation of bioelectrode materials, bioelectrode interfaces, high-throughput biosensing platforms, and systemic approach for the development of electrochemical biosensors and bioelectronics for biomedical and energy applications. The adopted subject enables hugely impact other fundamental areas, such as advanced security, forensics, food and the environmental monitoring. The chapters include the state-of-the-art of two-dimensional (2D) bioelectronics and demand range of innovations in crosscutting disciplines starting from fabrication to applications.

The graphene and 2D-like nanomaterials permit exfoliation into atomi­cally-thick bioelectronic interfaces which percolate free bioelectronic movements into the 2D planes and regulates motion in the third plane with a nanometer thickness. Chapter 1 describes the various approaches to fabricate and characterize graphene and 2D-like nanomaterials, as well as demonstrate various electrochemical biosensors. The different bio-functionalization patterns of graphene and 2D-like nanomaterials are realized to enable high performance enzyme-based, antibody-based, and DNA or aptamer-based biosensors. The chapter 2 overviewed the synthesis, characterizations, and fundamental properties of vertical graphene-based electrochemical biosensors. The vertical orientation and open structures make it attractive to hold large amount of bio-functions for the bioelectronic submissions.

The chapter 3 discusses recent advancements in the metal alloy-graphene nanohybrid materials in biomolecule detection, including glucose, hydrogen peroxide, vanillin, methotrexate, dopamine (DA), chlorpyrifos, nifedipine, ascorbic acid (AA), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), DNA, RNA, and carcinoembryonic antigen. Typically, the metal alloy-graphene based biosensors demonstrated excellent sensing performance, with good sensitivity, wide linear detection range, low detection limit, short time response, and long-term working and storage stability. Chapter 4 outlines the chemically modified graphene oxide with relatively enlarge the surface plasmon resonance sensitivity, and their applications in the clinical diagnostics such as protein-protein interactions for molecular detection of tumors. The bioelectronic sensors based on field-effect transistors (FETs) are widely reported due to their extremely high sensitivity, rapid response, and simple test procedure. The graphene-based FET biosensors are demonstrated for the detection of a range of biomolecules.  Chapter 5 highlights graphene-based FET sensors for biomolecules detection including protein, DNA, living cell, bacterium, etc.  The challenges and future prospective of graphene FET sensors in biomolecule sensing is also discussed.

The chapter 6 provides the recent developments of graphene-based electrochemical devices that have been applied in biomedical field, for the detection of a wide variety of analytes of interest ranging from small compounds to nucleic acids, antibodies, proteins, and bacteria. Focus interest of graphene-based lab-on-a-chip (LOC) devices capable to answer the important query introduced by the World Health Organization (WHO) towards  the  development  of  ASSURED  (Affordable,  Sensitive,  Specific, User-friendly, Rapid and robust, Equipment free and Deliverable to end-users) devices, as well as to replace traditional approaches in the biomedical self-diagnostic field. Chapter 7 emphasizes the emergent Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) analysis of whole cells using graphene, electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and graphene-oxide (GO) coated plasmonic interfaces such as evaluation of adhesion strength of different Escherichia coli strains, for detection of Pseudomonas and on the use of whole cells, e.g. Micrococcus lysodeikticus, as bioreporters. In this sequence, chapter 8 discusses the recent trends in the development of label-free biosensors based on bioelectronic interfaces consisting of graphene decorated with DNA molecules for example conjugation of DNA onto graphene surface using covalent and non-covalent types of interaction, towards the fabrication of biocompatible and conductive biosensing platforms with high specificity. The unique properties of the graphene/DNA biointerface can be facilitate the selective detection of a wide range of molecular targets in the biomedical and environmental fields including nucleotides and metal ions. Likewise, chapter 9 overviewed the various strategies and fabrication methods on the aptamer functionalised graphene based electrochemical analysis of tumor markers.

On the other hand, biofuel cells hold wide interests in the areas of bioelectronics, biomedicine and applied bioelectrochemistry. The performance of biofuel cells is driven through creating biocompatible microenvironments for trapping biomolecules and enhancement of electron transfer kinetics with the new design, structural engineering and smart architecture of nanostructured electrode materials. The chapter 10 offers an up-to-date overview of relevant advances in the research and development of enzymatic biofuel cells using graphene supported functional composites as electrode materials, with the emphasis on the nanoscale engineering of electrode materials for enhancing the overall performance. The chapter focuses on several types of composite material systems, including metallic nanoparticle decorated graphene materials, polymer-graphene and metal hydroxide-graphene composites. The chapter 11 deals with different nanohybrids of graphene as anodes and cathodes improving the overall efficiency of Microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Future perspectives address some key challenges pertaining to implication of graphene materials in MFCs are concluded at the end of chapter.  In the chapter 12, recent advances in food analysis and quality monitoring using graphene-based nanomaterials, including graphene, GO, rGO, graphene quantum dots (GQDs), and their derivatives are discussed. The chapter highlights current and future trends in graphene based sensing devices used for food quality monitoring, miniaturization and development of portable devices and smart food packaging technology to maintain the public health and reduce the waste of cost and food materials.

Moreover, graphene can be integrated into various flexible and stretchable electronic devices in a conventional, scalable fashion. The advantageous mechanical, electrical, and optical properties of graphene and their integration with Internet-of-Thing techniques could lead to a highly efficient, sophisticated and cost-effective device for the real-time applications in electronics, energy-harvesting devices, sensors, and other systems. Recent research progress on graphene-based flexible and stretchable electronics and advantages of these next generation device with their significant advancement from the past few years with a special emphasis on the advancement in wearable graphene based bioelectronics as sensing and energy devices are discussed in the chapter 13. At first the designing and fabrication steps used for making the devices are discussed. Afterwards, the flexible, portable, stretchable and wearable electronic devices enabled by graphene are summarized including, chip-based or patch-based sensors, logic devices, and bioinspired or health care devices. Chapter has been concluded by summarizing the challenges present in the field of graphene-based electronics and their potential solution, to improve their role in flexible and stretchable electronics. The chapter 14 discusses a wearable and flexible dry electrode design on graphene based electrochemical nanomaterial substrate as a sensing platform. The graphene offers the possibility of continuous real-time measurements of wearable electrocardiography (ECG) monitoring for a miniaturized healthcare application.

Thus, this book brings together innovative methodologies and strategies adopted in the research and developments of Graphene Bioelectronics. Well-known worldwide researchers deliberate subjects on (1) synthesis, characterizations, modeling and properties, (2) state-of-the-art fabrication and design of bioelectrodes and (3) innovative uses of graphene based bio-interfaces for range of bioelectronic applications. The book is written for readers from diverse backgrounds across chemistry, physics, materials science and engineering, nanoscience and nanotechnology, biotechnology, and biomedical engineering. It offers a comprehensive over view of cutting-edge research on Graphene Biosensors and Bioelectronics. We acknowledge contributors and Mr. George Mishra for his hard work to produce this high-quality book.

Description of Book-

    1. Introduction
    1. Fundamentals of graphene materials for bioelectronics
    1. Biocatalysis of graphene interfaces
    1. Bio-functional graphene materials
    1. Current-limiting defects in graphene
    1. Graphene electrodes for electrochemical biosensing
    1. Surfactant-free graphene for electrochemical energy conversion systems
    1. Graphene-based modified electrodes for electrobiocatalysis
    1. Ordered mesoporous graphene based bioelectrodes
    1. Graphene biofuel cells
  1. Photoelectrocatalytic graphene electrodes for fuel cell reactions
  2. Graphene electrodes for microbial fuel cells

About the author

VBRI Group is an innovative and ambitious organization started by Dr. Ashutosh Tiwari (Chairman and managing director).
VBRI group majorly deals with research, technology and innovation. The technology developed and adopted here is for the betterment of rural area and deals with the issues related to agriculture, health and education. It’s a group of companies, comprises VBRI Foundation, VBRI Education, VBRI Events, VBRI Press and VBRI Technology.

The group-business has witnessed expansion in various domain by providing appropriate solution and consultancy through world class platform.

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