Graphene Materials: Fundamentals and Emerging Applications (Advanced Materials Book Series)

Graphene Material pic

Ashutosh Tiwari and Mikael Syväjärvi

Hardcover: 424 pages    Publisher: WILEY-Scrivener,USA

Language: English           ISBN: 978-1-118-99837-3

From the Editor

 The graphene materials are the most focused arena of materials research in the present decade mainly fundamental phenomenon related to physics, chemistry, biology, applied sciences and engineering. As the first atomic-thick two-dimensional crystalline material, graphene has continuously created a wonder land in nanomaterials and nanotechnology. A number of methods have been developed for preparation and functionalization of single-layered graphene nanosheets, which are essential building blocks for the bottom-up architecture of various graphene materials. They possess unique physicochemical properties such as large surface areas, good conductivity and mechanical strength, high thermal stability and desirable flexibility. Altogether they create a new type of super-thin phenomenon and are highly attractive for a wide range of applications. The electronic behaviour in graphene such as Dirac fermions obtained due to the interaction with the ions of the lattice has led to the discovery of novel miracles like Klein tunneling in carbon based solid state systems and the so-called half-integer quantum Hall effect due to a special type of Berry phase. This book entitled, Graphene Materials: Fundamentals and Emerging Applications proposes a detailed up-to-date chapters on the processing, properties and technology developments of graphene materials including multifunctional graphene sheets, surface functionalization, covalent nanocomposites,  reinforced nanoplatelets composites etc. for a wide range of applications.

Graphene has created a profound interest in two-dimensional materials properties. Graphene oxide has shown to be possible to reproduce in large quantities, but still the properties for its fabrication needs to be understood in order to have reproducible material quality. Still it is now clear what type of two dimensional materials will be best for various applications. Other two dimensional materials may be better suited regarding certain applications, and therefore should be understood more in detail. In addition, hybrids and two dimensional materials can results in extended properties. Chapter 1 presents fabrication of graphene oxide and two dimensional materials, like tin selenides, SnS2, MnO2, NO BN, MoSand WS2, the latter which can tune electrical properties from metallic and semiconducting by changing the crystal structure and the amount of layers, but it may also act as a lubricant material for use in high temperature and high pressure applications. In comparison, MoS2 is one of the transition metal dichalcogenides and applicable as battery, electrochemical capacitor, memory cell, catalysts, and composite. The chapter also introduces the concept of WS2 nanosheets hybridized with reduced graphene oxide nanosheets to achieve a good catalytic activity.

Novel features may be obtained combining graphene nanosheets and graphene oxide with other new nanomaterials such as magnetic nanoparticles, carbon dots, carbon nanotubes, nanosemiconductors, quantum dots. The requirement is that the graphene surfaces must be functionalized. The noncovalent and covalent functionalization of graphene nanosheets and graphene oxide are presented in Chapter 2. Noncovalent functionalization involves hydrophobic, π‑π, Van der Waals, and electrostatic interactions. In this there is a physical adsorption of suitable molecules on the graphene surface. Covalent functionalization can take place at the end of the sheets and/or on the surface. The combination of inorganic nanoparticles with graphene oxide may be either as a pre-graphenization (graphene oxide is mixed with the nano particles) or post-graphenization (where nanosheets and graphene oxide are prepared separately) process. The functionalized graphene nanosheets may be applied into three-dimensional porous graphene networks that have large surface areas, good conductivity and mechanical strength, high thermal stability and flexibility. Chapter 3 presents the most used methods to assemble three-dimensional porous graphene networks and their structural characteristics, and gives some examples of their applications in sensors and energy devices. The graphene-based composites have a large specific surface area, porous structure, and fast electron transport kinetics that provides unique physicochemical properties that are mechanically robust, and have high conductivity, high thermal stability and fast mass and electron transport properties. The challenges lie in controllable pore size and functionality to have flexibility of the frameworks for mechanically robust materials and maintain structural integrity, stability and conductivity.

Graphene-based nanocomposites may act as of both graphene filler and polymer host that have enhanced performance in many applications like flexible packaging, structural components for transportation or energy storage, memory devices, hydrogen storage, printed electronics. The polymers covalently reinforced with graphene may be best when homogeneously dispersed in the matrix with a through strong filler/polymer interface without phase segregation, especially in direct covalent binding between polymers and graphene. The grafting-from (graphene as a macromolecular initiator to grow polymer brushes from its surface) and grafting-to (combining graphene and polymers through a chemical reaction) approaches to bind polymers to graphene are presented in Chapter 4. Metal matrix composites are often used in aerospace and automobile industries. As a specific case using graphene, magnesium matrix composites reinforced with graphene nanoplatelets is given in Chapter 5. The mechanical properties of Mg-graphene composites show that there is a poor response of graphene nanoplatelet addition on tensile strength of pure Mg matrix, while addition of graphene nanoplatelet into Mg alloys matric led to significant improvement in mechanical strength. In addition, there is higher tensile failure strain in the synergetic effect of graphene and carbon nanotubes in the Mg-1Al alloy matrix relative to those reinforced with individual graphene nanoplatelets and multi wall carbon nanotubes.

The increase in energy saving need pushes the graphene to be explored in batteries and supercapacitors. Graphene with its electron transfer behavior and unique two-dimensional surface is acknowledged as a potential electrode material. This becomes attractive since graphene improves conductivity, charge rate, energy capacity. The excellent chemical stability, high electrical conductivity, and large surface area of graphene makes it attractive in reduction of volume expansion of electrode materials in lithium batteries and graphene-based supercapacitors which may exhibit high storage capacity, fast energy release, quick recharge time, and a long lifetime. Chapter 6 gives insights in intrinsic challenges of poor kinetics, large volume expansion, and dissolution of polysulfides in the electrolyte in graphene based batteries, and V2O5/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites, Co3O4 nanoplates/reduced graphene oxide composites and graphene/NiO as well as graphene–MnO2 hybrids together with some other material approaches as electrode materials for supercapacitors. The poor stability of conducting polymers during charging/discharging is a major challenge in high power supercapacitors. In addition, the low conductivity of conducting polymer also results in high ohmic polarization and a declining reversibility and stability. Chapter 7 presents conducting polymers; including polypyrrole, polyaniline and polyethenedioxythiophene with superior electrical conductivity and large pseudo capacitance have aroused great interest as electrode materials for supercapacitors as a consequence of their high conductivity and fast redox electroactivity. Chapter 8 deals ZnO/graphene nanocomposite based bulk hetro-junction solar cells and deliberates on the carrier diffusion length, recombination losses, device architect limitations, efficient charge separation and transport to respective electrodes restricts organic photovoltaic efficiency, dielectric constant value and charge carrier mobility.

Bimetallic nanocatalysts may give a large surface, the excellent dispersion and the high degrees of sensitivity. Chapter 9 describes hierarchically structured platinum–ruthenium nanoparticles incorporated in three dimensional graphene foam as electrode materials for fuel cells with enhanced performance by decreasing particle size, increasing number of active sites for methanol or ethanol, and increasing the resistance against CO poisoning, as well as detection of H2O2 in biosensing by Pt active binding sites that are able to interact with H2O2 to enhance the catalytic activity of the H2O2 detection. Graphene and graphene-based nanocomposites may be electrochemical sensing and biosensing platforms. These can lead to biosensors with superior analytical performance, high sensitivity, low detection limit, high precision, high specificity, low working potentials and prolonged stability. Direct electrochemical detection or enzymeless sensing of glucose is feasible using nanocomposites of graphene decorated with metal nano particles and nanowires that can be operated at low applied potentials, and graphene with exposed edge-like planes offers several advantages over other electrode materials for the catalytic oxidation of the DNA bases, as described in Chapter 10. This was also used to demonstrate that graphene can be used as a biocompatible substrate to enhance cell adhesion and growth to form a basis for the detection of cells.

Chapter 11 describes graphene approaches that have been adopted for improving the performance of graphene nanomaterials-based miniaturized electrochemical biosensors that may be binding of various enzymes. This may lead to graphene to be used as a transducer in bio-field-effect transistors, electrochemical, impedimetric, electrochemiluminescence, and fluorescence biosensors, as well as biomolecular labels. Further on, graphene nanostructured biosensors has a broad applicability for environmental monitoring, particularly in toxic gases, heavy metal ions and organic pollutants detection. Finally, graphene oxide and its derivatives are described in Chapter 12 regarding water purification systems. The graphene oxide acts as a separating filter for water purification system by rejecting the contaminants by size exclusion and charge effects. The cleaning of water may be by removing heavy metals, pesticides, oil, radioactive compounds, organic dyes or bacteria. The book is written for readers from diverse backgrounds across chemistry, physics, materials science and engineering, medical science, pharmacy, environmental technology, biotechnology, and biomedical engineering. It offers a comprehensive view of cutting-edge research on atom-thick and super-thin materials that can have a profound nanotechnological importance.

Description of Book-

Part 1: Fundamentals of graphene and based nanocomposites

Chapter 1

Graphene and Related Two-Dimensional Materials

Tanya Das, Singapore

Chapter 2

Surface Functionalization of Geraphene

Mojtaba Bagherzadeh, Iran

Chapter 3

Covalent Graphene-Polymer Nanocomposites

Horacio J. Salavagione, Spain

Chapter 4

Magnesium Matrix Composites Reinforced with Graphene Nanoplatelets

Fusheng Pan, China

Part 2: Emerging applications of graphene in energy, health, environment and sensors

Chapter 5

Architecture and Applications of Functional Three-dimensional Graphene Networks

Qijin Chi, Denmark

Chapter 6

Graphene and its Derivatives for Energy Storage

Malgorzata Aleksandrzak, Poland

Chapter 7

Graphene-Polypyrrole Nanocomposite: An Ideal Electroactive Material for High Performance Supercapacitors

Huang Nay Ming, Malaysia

Chapter 8

Hydrophobic ZnO Anchored Graphene Nanocomposite Based Bulk Hetro-junction Solar Cells to Improve Short Circuit Current Density

K. Dhawan, India

Chapter 9

Three-dimensional Graphene Bimetallic Nanocatalysts Foam for Energy storage and Biosensing

Chih-Chien Kung, USA

Chapter 10

Electrochemical Sensing and Biosensing Platforms using Graphene and Graphene-based Nanocomposites

H.T. Luong, Ireland

 Chapter 11

Applications of Graphene Electrodes in Health and Environmental Monitoring

Georgia-Paraskevi Nikoleli, Greece

About the author

VBRI Group is an innovative and ambitious organization started by Dr. Ashutosh Tiwari (Chairman and managing director).
VBRI group majorly deals with research, technology and innovation. The technology developed and adopted here is for the betterment of rural area and deals with the issues related to agriculture, health and education. It’s a group of companies, comprises VBRI Foundation, VBRI Education, VBRI Events, VBRI Press and VBRI Technology.

The group-business has witnessed expansion in various domain by providing appropriate solution and consultancy through world class platform.

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