Intelligent Nanomaterials: Processes, Properties, and Applications

Intelligent nanomaterials

Ashutosh Tiwari, Ajay Kumar Mishra, Hisatoshi Kobayashi, Anthony P.F. Turner

Hardcover: 864 pages   Publisher: WILEY-Scrivener,USA

Language: English         ISBN: 978-0-470-93879-9

From the Editors-

The creation of new materials is one of the fundamental driving forces of industry and lays the foundation for new products to enhance the wealth and well being of society. The last three decades has seen extraordinary advances in the generation of new materials based on both fundamental elements and composites, driven by advances in synthetic chemistry and often drawing inspiration from nature. The concept of an intelligent material envisions additional functionality built into to the molecular structure, such that a desirable response occurs under defined conditions. The last decade has seen the emergence of particular material properties engineered by exploiting the extraordinary behavior of nanostructures.

Nanomaterials are built of components with at least one dimension in the nanometer range. More specifically, dimensions of 1-100 nm are generally considered to fall in this class. At these dimensions, extraordinary physical and chemical properties can be observed, which have formed the basis for a burgeoning nanotechnology industry. While examples can be found of serendipitous use of nanotechnology right back to ancient Egyptian times, the systematic understanding and commercial exploitation of nanomaterials emerged in the early 1990’s, as indicated by a burgeoning number of patents at that time covering fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, dedrimers, quantum dots,  nanowires etc. These new varieties of low dimensional materials  have much larger surface to volume (S/V) ratios as compared to their bulk counterparts. With decrease in the size of nanoparticles, the S/V ratio increases abruptly. It is well known that surface atoms in any material are loosely bound as compared to the interior atoms, hence with increase in surface area the surface free energy increases. Nanomaterials therefore play very prominent role in physical, chemical and biomedical engineering applications due their high surface energies. Also the electronic configuration of atoms within the materials is very important since this principally detrmines the type of bonding and thus electrical, optical, luminescent, mechanical and magnetic properties. At nanoscale dimensions, materials exhibit entirely different properties as compared to thieir bulk counterpart. Noble metallic nanoparticles/nanostructures exhibit interesting feature of localised surface plasmon resonant (LSPR); absorption can be tuned from ultraviolet region to infrared region of electromagnetic spectrum and this field has been developed to deliver potential applications in photonics, optoelectronics, optical-data storage, solar cells, filters, sensors not to mention the considerable scope in medical engineering, such as DNA labeling,  tumor and cancer therapy etc. Study of the propagation of electromagnetic waves through metallic nanostructures with different shapes has become a major field due to fascinating applications in antennas and also left handed materials. Semiconductor nanostructures on the other hand are very promising candidates for applications in luminescent devices such as light emitting diodes, flat screen displays, lasers etc. and especially in electronic devices, due to their extraordinary feature of band gaps ranging from UV-visible to infrared regions.

Silicon has reigned supreme amongst materials responsible for miniaturisation of the world of electronics in the last century. However, recent progresses in the design of  materials synthesised from other semiconducting families, such as III-V or II-VI, are showing even more promise for versatile applications and may provide a new generation of materials. For example, nano-micro structures of zinc oxide/sulphide, tin oxide, cadmium sulphide and titanium oxide exhibit interesting electrical, optical and mechanical  properties. They can be used in a wide variety of applications ranging through from sensors, LEDs, flat panel displays, energy storage/ harvesting and batteries.

Similarly, advances in synthesising nano-micro structures from insulators like silica and polymers, have found interesting applications in biomedical engineering such as drug delivery and implants. Conducting polymers have recently opened an entirely new field of organic field-effect transistors, organic light-emitting diodes, light weight electronics etc. The current challenges in material engineering demand the fabrication of multicomponent composite materials having multifunctional properties. Inter-mixing of two or several nanostructural components into a composite form will give rise complementary properties which will enable these materials to exhibit the capability of self-repair under any external damage or perturbation. These kind of materials which exhibit the ability of self-repairing under external cause clearly fall into the category of ‘intelligent nanomaterials’.

Nanotechnology was first conceptualised by science fiction writers like Robert Heinlen and Eric Frank Russel in the 1940s, but it was Richard Feynman’s (1918-1988) visionary talk “There’s plenty of room at the bottom” in 1959 that is often credited with launching Nanotechnology. While much of the early focus was on nanofabrication and nanoelectronics, the application of science and technology at the nano-scale also promises to revolutionise medicine in the 21st Century, enabling us to understand many diseases leading to new insights in diagnostics and therapy and contributing to the development of new generations of medicinal products exploiting functional materials, nano-biomaterials and medical nano-devices. Healthcare is one of the largest and most rapidly expanding needs in society today and smart nanomaterials will have application in a diverse arena including drug screening technologies, biocompatible materials and orthopaedic implants, lab-on-a-strip and nanobiosensors, drug delivery, degenerative disease diagnosis and treatment, self-assembled bio-structures, advanced medical imaging and regenerative medicine. On a wider front, intelligent nanomaterials are contributing to new coatings, fabrics, memory and logic chips, contrast media, optical components, superconducting electrical components etc. Some commentators have rather overstated the market size for nanomaterials by referring to the price of finished products such as cars and phones, rather than the intermediate products more properly attributed to the materials themselves. Nevertheless, even conservative estimates place the current market size for the materials alone at around US$4b. Current products have been dominated by simple nanostructures with beneficial properties such as the antimicrobial properties of silver nanoparticles. However, we are now witnessing the emergence of active nanostructures in the form of electronics, sensors, drug release technologies and adaptive structures. The future promises molecular nanosystems with hierarchical functions and evolutionary systems that will power the next generation of industrial development.

This book aims to provide an up-to-date introduction to the fascinating field of intelligent nanomaterials. In general description, this large and fairly comprehensive volume includes twenty two chapters divided into four main areas: Inorganic materials, organic materials, composite materials, and biomaterials. It covers the latest research and developments in intelligent nanomaterials: processing, properties, and applications. Included are molecular device materials, biomimetic materials, hybrid-type functionalized polymers-composite materials, information-and energy-transfer materials, as well as environmentally friendly materials. The book is written for a large readership including university students and researchers from diverse backgrounds such as chemistry, materials science, physics, biological science and engineering. It can be used not only as a text book for both undergraduate and graduate students, but also as a review and reference book for researchers in the materials science, bioengineering, pharmacy, biotechnology and nanotechnology.

Description of Book-

Inorganic materials

Chapter 1

Synthesis, characterization, and self-assembly of colloidal quantum dots

Saim M. Emin, Alexandre Loukanov, Surya P. Singh, Seiichiro Nakabayashi, Liyuan Han

Chapter 2

One-dimensional semiconducting metals oxides: synthesis, characterization and gas sensing applications

Nguyen Duc Hoa

Chapter 3

Rare-earth based insulating nanocrystals: improved luminescent nanophosphors for plasma display panels

Prashant K. Sharma, Avinash C. Pandey

Chapter 4

Amorphous porous mixed oxides: a new and highly versatile class of materials

Sadanand Pandey, Shivani B. Mishra

Chapter 5

ZnO nanostructures and their applications

Rizwan Wahab, I.H. Hwang, Hyung-Shik Shin, Young-Soon Kim

Chapter 6

Smart nanomaterials for space and energy applications

Raghvendra S. Yadav,  Ravindra P. Singh, Prinsa Verma, Ashutosh Tiwari, Avinash C. Pandey

Chapter 7

Thermochromic thin films and nanocomposites for smart glazing

Russell Binions

Organic materials

Chapter 8

Polymeric nano- micellar and core-shell materials: synthesis, characterization and properties

Angel Contreras-García, Guillermina Burillo, Emilio Bucio

Chapter 9

Self-assembled nanostructures p-conjugated oligomers

Edith Antunes, Christian Litwinski, Tebello Nyokong

Chapter 10

Nanostructured carbon and polymer materials- synthesis and their application in energy conversion devices

Debmalya Roy, B. Shastri, Md. Immamuddin, K. Mukhopadhyay

Chapter 11

Advancement in cellulose based bio-plastic

K. Shukla

Composite materials

Chapter 12

Intelligent nanocomposite hydrogels

Mohammad Sirousazar, Mehrdad Kokabi

Chapter 13

Polymer/layered silicates nanocomposites for barrier technology

Philip W Labuschagne, Sean Moolman, Arjun Maity

Chapter 14

Polymers/composites based intelligent transduces

Ajay Kumar Mishra, Shivani B. Mishra, Ashutosh Tiwari

Biomaterials and devices

Chapter 15

Hydrogel nanoparticles in drug delivery

Mehrdad Hamidi, Kobra Rostamizadeh, Mohammad-Ali Shahbazi

Chapter 16

Mode of growth mechanism of nanocrystal using biomolecules

Sharda Sundaram Sanjay, Ravindra P. Singh, Ashutosh Tiwari, Avinash C. Pandey

Chapter 17

Quantum dots for detection, identification and tracking of single biomolecules in tissue and cells

Alexandre R. Loukanov, Saim Emin

Chapter 18

Nanofibers based biomedical devices

Debasish Mondal, Ashutosh Tiwari

Chapter 19

Nano-sized carrier systems as new materials for nuclear medicine

Martin Hruby

Chapter 20

Biomimetic materials toward application of nanobiodevices

Ravindra P. Singh,  Jeong-Woo Choi, Ashutosh Tiwari,   Avinash C. Pandey

Chapter 21

Lipid based nano-biosensors for medical diagnostics

Georgia-Paraskevi Nikoleli, Dimitrios P. Nikolelis, Nikolaos Tzamtzis

Chapter 22

Polymeric nanofibers and their applications in sensors

Murugan Ramalingam, Ashutosh Tiwari

 

About the author

VBRI Group is an innovative and ambitious organization started by Dr. Ashutosh Tiwari (Chairman and managing director).
VBRI group majorly deals with research, technology and innovation. The technology developed and adopted here is for the betterment of rural area and deals with the issues related to agriculture, health and education. It’s a group of companies, comprises VBRI Foundation, VBRI Education, VBRI Events, VBRI Press and VBRI Technology.

The group-business has witnessed expansion in various domain by providing appropriate solution and consultancy through world class platform.

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